Studies on anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in experimental animal models. Sarika Amdekar;Vinod Singh. 2016. J Complement Integr Med. 13. PMID: 27078675

BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, constant use of NSAID may lead to some side effects like gastrointestinal ulcers, bleeding and renal disorders. This study evaluates analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in female Wistar rats. METHODS: Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug for comparison. L. rhamnosus, drugs and vehicle were administered orally. Acetic acid-induced writhing test and carrageenan-induced paw edema model were used for evaluation. Paw edema and number of writhes were measured subsequently. Pro-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-17) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines were estimated in serum after 24 h. RESULTS: Results showed that L. rhamnosus significantly decreased the paw thickness at t=24 h by 28.66 % while drug decreased by 19.33 %. Also, L. rhamnosus treatment and standard drug showed a protection of 66.66 % and 41.66 %, respectively. L. rhamnosus and diclofenac sodium treatment significantly down-regulated pro-inflammatory and up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines at p<0.0001. Overall, protection provided by L. rhamnosus was more pronounced in comparison to diclofenac sodium. CONCLUSIONS: The present study clearly suggests that L. rhamnosus suppressed carrageenan-induced paw edema after second phase and decreased the acetic acid-induced writhings. It ameliorated the inflammatory pathways by down-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of L. rhamnosus in treatment/management of inflammatory joint diseases.
Intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol is limited by Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 in pig jejunum explants. Gisela Romina García;Delphine Payros;Philippe Pinton;Cecilia Ana Dogi;Joëlle Laffitte;Manon Neves;María Laura González Pereyra;Lilia Renée Cavaglieri;Isabelle P Oswald. 2017. Arch Toxicol. 92. PMID: 28993953

Probiotics have been explored to stimulate gut health in weaned pigs, when they started to consume solid diet where mycotoxins could be present. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 on the intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON) in an ex vivo model. Jejunal explants, obtained from 5-week-old crossbred castrated male piglets, were kept as control, exposed for 3 h to 10 μM DON, incubated for 4 h with 109 CFU/mL L. rhamnosus, or pre-incubated 1 h with 109 L. rhamnosus and exposed to DON. Histological lesions were observed, para- and transcellular intestinal permeability was measured in Ussing chambers. The expression levels of mRNA encoding six inflammatory cytokines (CCL20, IL-10, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8 and IL-22) were determined by RT-PCR. The expressions of the phosphorylated MAP kinases p42/p44 and p38 were assessed by immunoblotting. Exposure to DON induced histological changes, significantly increased the expression of CCL20, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-22 and IL-10, increased the intestinal paracellular permeability and activated MAP kinases. Incubation with L. rhamnosus alone did not have any significant effect. By contrast, the pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus reduced all the effects of DON: the histological alterations, the pro-inflammatory response, the paracellular permeability and the phosphorylation of MAP kinases. Of note, L. rhamnosus did not adsorb DON and only slightly degrade the toxin. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus RC007 is a promising probiotic which, included as feed additive, can decrease the intestinal toxicity of DON.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotic prevents airway function deterioration and promotes gut microbiome resilience in a murine asthma model. Irina Spacova;Wannes Van Beeck;Sven Seys;Fien Devos;Jeroen Vanoirbeek;Jozef Vanderleyden;Jan Ceuppens;Mariya Petrova;Sarah Lebeer. 2020. Gut Microbes. 11. PMID: 32522072

Allergic asthma is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease of the lower airways, clinically characterized by airway hyperreactivity and deterioration of airway function. Immunomodulatory probiotic bacteria are increasingly being explored to prevent asthma development, alone or in combination with other treatments. In this study, wild-type and recombinant probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 were tested as preventive treatment of experimental allergic asthma in mice. Recombinant L. rhamnosus GR-1 was designed to produce the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, to promote allergen-specific immunomodulation. Administration of wild-type and recombinant L. rhamnosus GR-1 prevented the development of airway hyperreactivity. Recombinant L. rhamnosus GR-1 also prevented elevation of airway total cell counts, lymphocyte counts and lung IL-1β levels, while wild-type L. rhamnosus GR-1 inhibited airway eosinophilia. Of note, a shift in gut microbiome composition was observed after asthma development, which correlated with the severity of airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In the groups that received L. rhamnosus GR-1, this asthma-associated shift in gut microbiome composition was not observed, indicating microbiome-modulating effects of this probiotic. These data demonstrate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 can prevent airway function deterioration in allergic asthma. Bet v 1 expression by L. rhamnosus GR-1 further contributed to lower airway inflammation, although not solely through the expected reduction in T helper 2-associated responses, suggesting involvement of additional mechanisms. The beneficial effects of L. rhamnosus GR-1 correlate with increased gut microbiome resilience, which in turn is linked to protection of airway function, and thus further adds support to the existence of a gut-lung axis.
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages. Esmaeil Mortaz;Ian M Adcock;Fabio L M Ricciardolo;Mohammad Varahram;Hamidreza Jamaati;Ali Akbar Velayati;Gert Folkerts;Johan Garssen. 2015. PLoS One. 10. PMID: 26317628

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS) as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve) attenuate the development of 'allergic asthma' in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. DESIGN: We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation. RESULTS: Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05) in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05). The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Ameliorates Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammation and Cell Damage via Attenuation of ASC-Independent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation. Qiong Wu;Ming-Chao Liu;Jun Yang;Jiu-Feng Wang;Yao-Hong Zhu. 2015. Appl Environ Microbiol. 82. PMID: 26655757

Escherichia coli is a major environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis, which leads to mammary tissue damage and cell death. We explored the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on ameliorating E. coli-induced inflammation and cell damage in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), NOD1, and NOD2 mRNA expression was observed following E. coli challenge, but this increase was attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses revealed that L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment decreased the E. coli-induced increases in the expression of the NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and the serine protease caspase 1. However, expression of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC, encoded by the Pycard gene) was decreased during E. coli infection, even with L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Pretreatment with L. rhamnosus GR-1 counteracted the E. coli-induced increases in interleukin-1β (IL-1β), -6, -8, and -18 and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA expression but upregulated IL-10 mRNA expression. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduces the adhesion of E. coli to BMECs, subsequently ameliorating E. coli-induced disruption of cellular morphology and ultrastructure and limiting detrimental inflammatory responses, partly via promoting TLR2 and NOD1 synergism and attenuating ASC-independent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Although the residual pathogenic activity of L. rhamnosus, the dosage regimen, and the means of probiotic supplementation in cattle remain undefined, our data enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of this candidate probiotic, allowing for development of specific probiotic-based therapies and strategies for preventing pathogenic infection of the bovine mammary gland.
Live and Heat-Killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 May Induce Modulatory Cytokines Profiles on Macrophages RAW 264.7. Adeline Lacerda Jorjão;Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira;Mariella Vieira Pereira Leão;Cláudio Antonio Talge Carvalho;Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge;Luciane Dias de Oliveira. 2015. ScientificWorldJournal. 2015. PMID: 26649329

This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and/or its products to induce the synthesis of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12) by mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). Three microorganism preparations were used: live L. rhamnosus (LLR) suspension, heat-killed L. rhamnosus (HKLR) suspension, and the supernatant of a heat-killed L. rhamnosus (SHKLR) suspension, which were cultured with macrophages (37°C, 5% CO2) for 2 h and 30 min. After that, cells were cultured for 16 h. The supernatants were used for the quantitation of cytokines, by ELISA. The results were compared with the synthesis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and analysed, using ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%. LLR and HKLR groups were able to significantly increase the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 (P < 0.05). SHKLR also significantly increased the production of TNF-α and IL-10 (P < 0.05) but not IL-6 (P > 0.05). All the L. rhamnosus suspensions were not able to produce detectable levels of IL-1β or significant levels of IL-4 and IL-12 (P > 0.05). In conclusion, live and heat-killed L. rhamnosus suspensions were able to induce the synthesis of different cytokines with proinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-6) or regulatory (IL-10) functions, suggesting the role of strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 in the modulation or in the stimulation of immune responses.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Ameliorates Escherichia coli-Induced Activation of NLRP3 and NLRC4 Inflammasomes With Differential Requirement for ASC. Qiong Wu;Yao-Hong Zhu;Jin Xu;Xiao Liu;Cong Duan;Mei-Jun Wang;Jiu-Feng Wang. 2018. Front Microbiol. 9. PMID: 30087667

Escherichia coli is a common cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) synergizes with caspase-1 to regulate inflammasome activation during pathogen infection. Here, the ASC gene was knocked out in bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells using clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas)-9 technology. MAC-T cells were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and then exposed to E. coli. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased expression of NLRP3 and NLRC4 following E. coli infection, but this increase was attenuated by pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus GR-1, regardless of ASC knockout. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus GR-1 decreased E. coli-induced caspase-1 activation at 6 h after E. coli infection, as also observed in ASC-knockout MAC-T cells. The E. coli-induced increase in caspase-4 mRNA expression was inhibited by pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus GR-1. ASC knockout diminished, but did not completely prevent, increased production of IL-1β and IL-18 and cell pyroptosis associated with E. coli infection, whereas pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus GR-1 inhibited this increase. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 suppresses activation of ASC-dependent NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes and production of downstream IL-lβ and IL-18 during E. coli infection. L. rhamnosus GR-1 also inhibited E. coli-induced cell pyroptosis, in part through attenuation of NLRC4 and non-canonical caspase-4 activation independently of ASC.
Study of the alleviation effects of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and inulin on mice with colitis. Zhijing Liu;Fei Liu;Wan Wang;Changbao Sun;Da Gao;Jiage Ma;Muhammad Altaf Hussain;Cong Xu;Zhanmei Jiang;Juncai Hou. 2020. Food Funct. 11. PMID: 32329478

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has serious harmful effects on human health. Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic, has a strong colonization and adhesion effect and improves the intestinal health of the host. Inulin has good anti-inflammatory effects and can promote the proliferation of beneficial intestinal bacteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alleviating effects of L. rhamnosus 1.0320 in combination with inulin on UC, examining the resulting changes in intestinal flora. A UC model was established by having mice freely drink a 3% (w/v) dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) solution for seven days. After successful modeling, the mice were given antibiotics, L. rhamnosus 1.0320 by itself, inulin by itself, and L. rhamnosus 1.0320 combined with inulin as an intragastric intervention for 28 days. The abundance and structural changes of bacteria in the intestinal content of mice were analyzed by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The study found that male BALB/c mice can successfully establish a typical model of small intestinal inflammation by freely drinking a 3% DSS solution for one week. L. rhamnosus 1.0320 combined with inulin can alleviate DSS-induced colitis, reduce the Disease Activity Index (DAI) score of the pathological damage of colon tissue, decrease myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, increase hemoglobin content, and regulate the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. The intestinal flora of mice is reduced after enteritis, and its structure gets disordered. The combination of L. rhamnosus 1.0320 and inulin can increase the abundance and diversity of intestinal flora, and increase the content of beneficial bacteria. Prebiotics promote the colonization ability of probiotics. L. rhamnosus 1.0320 combined with inulin can change the intestinal flora to relieve ulcerative colitis, providing a new theoretical basis for the study of UC mechanism.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and its cell-free culture supernatant differentially modulate inflammatory biomarkers in Escherichia coli-challenged human dendritic cells. Miriam Bermudez-Brito;Sergio Muñoz-Quezada;Carolina Gomez-Llorente;Fernando Romero;Angel Gil. 2014. Br J Nutr. 111. PMID: 24480321

The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance to the commensal microbiota and food antigens. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate the activation of dendritic cells (DC), polarising the subsequent activity of T-cells. Nevertheless, information about their underlying mechanisms of action is scarce. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a potentially probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) on human DC challenged with Escherichia coli. The results showed that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12p70 were higher in the cells treated with live L. rhamnosus than in the cells treated with the CFS. In the presence of E. coli, the supernatant was more effective than the probiotic bacteria in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, live L. rhamnosus potently induced the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2, whereas the CFS increased the secretion of TGF-β1. However, in the presence of E. coli, both treatments restored the levels of TGF-β. The probiotic strain L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 and its CFS were able to activate the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, enhancing innate immunity. The two treatments induced gene transcription of TLR-9. Live L. rhamnosus activated the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 genes, whereas the CFS increased the expression of TLR-1 and TLR-5 genes. In response to the stimulation with probiotic/CFS and E. coli, the expression of each gene tested was notably increased, with the exception of TNF-α and NFKBIA. In conclusion, the CFS exhibited an extraordinary ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by DC, and may be used as an effective and safer alternative to live bacteria.
Immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate antiviral immune response in porcine intestinal epithelial and antigen presenting cells. Julio Villena;Eriko Chiba;Maria Guadalupe Vizoso-Pinto;Yohsuke Tomosada;Takuya Takahashi;Takamasa Ishizuka;Hisashi Aso;Susana Salva;Susana Alvarez;Haruki Kitazawa. 2014. BMC Microbiol. 14. PMID: 24886142

BACKGROUND: Previous findings suggested that Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 is able to increase resistance of children to intestinal viral infections. However, the intestinal cells, cytokines and receptors involved in the immunoregulatory effect of this probiotic strain have not been fully characterized. RESULTS: We aimed to gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory effect of the CRL1505 strain and therefore evaluated in vitro the crosstalk between L. rhamnosus CRL1505, porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and antigen presenting cells (APCs) from swine Peyer's patches in order to deepen our knowledge about the mechanisms, through which this strain may help preventing viral diarrhoea episodes. L. rhamnosus CRL1505 was able to induce IFN-α and -β in IECs and improve the production of type I IFNs in response to poly(I:C) challenge independently of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 or TLR9 signalling. In addition, the CRL1505 strain induced mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α via TLR2 in IECs. Furthermore, the strain significantly increased surface molecules expression and cytokine production in intestinal APCs. The improved Th1 response induced by L. rhamnosus CRL1505 was triggered by TLR2 signalling and included augmented expression of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules and expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ in APCs. IL-10 was also significantly up-regulated by CRL1505 in APCs. CONCLUSIONS: It was recently reviewed the emergence of TLR agonists as new ways to transform antiviral treatments by introducing panviral therapeutics with less adverse effects than IFN therapies. The use of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 as modulator of innate immunity and inductor of antiviral type I IFNs, IFN-γ, and regulatory IL-10 clearly offers the potential to overcome this challenge.
Modulation of intestinal morphology and immunity in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. N Pirarat;K Pinpimai;M Endo;T Katagiri;A Ponpornpisit;N Chansue;M Maita. 2011. Res Vet Sci. 91. PMID: 21536310

The use of lactic acid bacteria from human origins as a potential probiotic supplementation in aquaculture feed is now widely accepted. Here, we examined some of the properties and mechanisms of the action of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, originating from humans, on growth performance, gut mucosal immunity and humoral and cellular immune response in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The results suggested that supplementation of L. rhamnosus gave an advantage in promoting the intestinal structure and the mucosal immunity of tilapia. Probiotic fish had a greater villous height in all parts of the intestines and, significantly, in the proximal and middle part. The population of intraepithelial lymphocytes was significantly higher in the probiotic group than in the control group in all parts of the intestines. The population of acidophilic granulocyte in the probiotic group was significantly higher at the proximal and distal parts when compared with the control group. The higher serum complement activity as well as the enhanced phagocytosis and killing ability of the head kidney leukocytes in the probiotic supplemented fish corresponded with the higher level of TNF alpha and IL-1 gene expression, suggesting that the induction of IL-1 and TNF alpha cytokines by L. rhamnosus served as an important regulator of gut associated immune systems.
Effects of dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM1136 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM5805 on the growth, intestinal microbiota, morphology, immune response and disease resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Yun Xia;Maixin Lu;Gang Chen;Jianmeng Cao;Fengying Gao;Miao Wang;Zhigang Liu;Defeng Zhang;Huaping Zhu;Mengmeng Yi. 2018. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 76. PMID: 29550602

The present study aimed to evaluate the individual and combined effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) JCM1136 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL) JCM5805 on the growth, intestinal microbiota, intestinal morphology, immune response and disease resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A total of 720 apparently healthy juvenile Nile tilapia (0.20 ± 0.05 g) were randomly divided into four equal groups. Fish were fed with a basal diet (CK) supplemented with JCM1136 (LR), JCM5805 (LL), and JCM1136 + JCM5805 (LR+LL) at 1 × 108 CFU/g basal diet for 6 weeks, followed by a basal diet for 1 week. After 6 weeks of feeding, the LL treatment significantly increased the growth and feed utilization of Nile tilapia when compared with the CK. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images of the midgut revealed that probiotic supplementation significantly increased gut microvilli length and microvilli density compared to CK. The transcript levels of several key immune-related genes in the mid-intestine and liver of fish were analyzed by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at the end of the sixth week. The results showed the following: when compared to CK group, fish in LR had significantly increased transcript levels of IFN-γ, lyzc, hsp70 and IL-1β in the intestine; LL fish showed significantly increased expressions of TNF-α, IFN-γ, lyzc, hsp70 and IL-1β in the intestine and liver; and intestine lyzc, hsp70 and IL-1β and liver TNF-α, IFN-γ, hsp70 and IL-1β were significantly increased in LR+LL fish. Following a 6-week period of being fed probiotics or a control diet, the tilapia were challenged with an intraperitoneal injection of 20 μl of the pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae (WC1535) (1 × 105 CFU/ml). The survival rates of the probiotic-fed groups were significantly higher than that of the CK group, and the LL group had the highest survival rate. High-throughput sequencing revealed a significantly higher presence of JCM5805 in the guts of LL fish during the period of probiotic application, but this was no longer detected in all LL samples 1 week post cessation of probiotic administration. Cessation of probiotic administration led to disorders of individual gut microbes within the LR and LL groups. Statistical analysis (LEfSe) demonstrated that three phyla, namely, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were enriched in the CK group, while the abundance of Proteobacteria was greater in the probiotic-fed fish. At the genus level, Plesiomonas, which includes potential pathogens of fish, were significantly decreased in the probiotic-fed groups. In contrast, a significant increase of Rhizobium and Achromobacter, which can produce a variety of enzymes with cellulolytic and pectolytic activity, were observed in fish fed with probiotics, indicating that dietary probiotics were helpful in the propagation of some probiotic bacteria. Our data revealed that JCM1136 and JCM5805, as a feed additive at 108 CFU/g feed, could improve intestinal morphology, enhance immune status and disease resistance, and affect the gut microbiota of tilapia; thus, these additives could be used as probiotics for juvenile Nile tilapia. JCM5805 was more effective than JCM1136 or the mixture of the two for promoting the growth, enhancing the immune status and disease resistance of tilapia.
Selection of New Probiotics for Endometrial Health. Empar Chenoll;Inmaculada Moreno;María Sánchez;Iolanda Garcia-Grau;Ángela Silva;Marta González-Monfort;Salvador Genovés;Felipe Vilella;Cristina Seco-Durban;Carlos Simón;Daniel Ramón. 2019. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 9. PMID: 31058101

Microbiota is a crucial player in gynecologic health, in which bacteria can shift to a dysbiotic state triggering a pathogenic process. Based on an ecological understanding of the problem, the aim of this study is to select a potential probiotic strain to improve female reproductive tract based on its capacity to initially lower pH and to promote the reduction of pathogenic bacteria. Based on this rationale, strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus BPL005 was initially selected for its capacity to reduce in vitro pH levels and produce organic acids. Subsequently, strain L. rhamnosus BPL005 (CECT 8800) was demonstrated to have a protective role on endometrial infections in an in vitro model of bacterial colonization of primary endometrial epithelial cells with Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Propionibacterium acnes, and Streptococcus agalactiae. In this model, BPL005 when co-cultured with those pathogens was shown to lower pH and to produce organic acids, being lactic acid the most relevant. The co-cultivation of strain L. rhamnosus BPL005 with tested reference pathogens produced a significant reduction in P. acnes and St. agalactiae levels and a non-significant reduction in A. vaginae and G. vaginalis. The colonization of L. rhamnosus BPL005 in the culture decreased IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, heightened in the presence of pathogens, and increased IL-1RA and IL-1 beta. Finally, safety was evaluated showing no signs of cytotoxicity, irritation in vaginal tests, or allergic contact dermatitis potential through the Local Lymph Node Assay. Overall, these results show the potential of L. rhamnosus BPL005 strain as a probiotic in gynecological health.
Anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LS-8 and Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 on high-fat and high-fructose diet mice base on inflammatory response alleviation and gut microbiota regulation. Tao Wang;Hong Yan;Yingying Lu;Xin Li;Xin Wang;Yuanyuan Shan;Yanglei Yi;Bianfang Liu;Yuan Zhou;Xin Lü. 2019. Eur J Nutr. . PMID: 31659451

PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LS-8 and Lactobacillus crustorum MN047, and illustrate the potential functional mechanism about the alleviation of high fat and high fructose diet (HFFD) induced obesity and related metabolic abnormalities. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a standard or HFFD with or without supplementation of L. rhamnosus LS-8 and L. crustorum MN047 for 10 weeks. Obesity related metabolic indices including glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, serum lipid, liver function, hormones and inflammatory cytokines were assessed by standard protocols. For the monitoring of inflammatory response and lipid metabolism, transcriptional levels were profiled in liver and/or adipose tissues. Furthermore, gut microbiota composition analyses in the fecal samples were performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and gut microbial metabolites, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), were also tested for the assessment of the relationship between gut microbiota variation and inflammatory response. RESULTS: Administration with L. rhamnosus LS-8 and L. crustorum MN047 significantly mitigated body weight gain and insulin resistance, and inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in serum and corresponding mRNA levels in adipose tissues) was significantly inhibited in these two strains-treated mice. Moreover, L. rhamnosus LS-8 and L. crustorum MN047 could partially normalized mRNA expression levels involved in lipid metabolism including Pparγ, Srebp-1c, CD36, Fabp2 and FAS. In addition, these two strains manipulated gut microbiota by decreasing the abundance of Bacteroides and Desulfovibrio and increasing that of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which in turn raised the levels of feces SCFAs and lowered the levels of circulating LPS. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that L. rhamnosus LS-8 and L. crustorum MN047 supplementation possessed the anti-obesity effect on the HFFD fed mice by alleviating inflammatory response and regulating gut microbiota, which further suggested that these two probiotics can be considered as an alternative dietary supplement in combination with the preventive and therapeutic strategies against obesity and related complications.
Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Ability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Feedlot Cattle Against Mastitis Using a Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells In Vitro Assay. Kohtaro Fukuyama;Md Aminul Islam;Michihiro Takagi;Wakako Ikeda-Ohtsubo;Shoichiro Kurata;Hisashi Aso;Graciela Vignolo;Julio Villena;Haruki Kitazawa. 2020. Pathogens. 9. PMID: 32466097

Bovine mastitis, the inflammation of the mammary gland, affects the quality and quantity of milk yield. Mastitis control relies on single or multiple combinations of antibiotic therapy. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens, the intramammary infusion of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been considered as a potential alternative to antibiotics for treating and preventing bovine mastitis through the improvement of the host immunity. Probiotic effects are a strain-dependent characteristic; therefore, candidate LAB strains have to be evaluated efficiently to find out the ones with the best potential. Here, we investigated LAB strains originally isolated from feedlot cattle's environment regarding their ability in inducing the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial (BME) cells in vitro. The BME cells were pre-stimulated with the LAB strains individually for 12, 24, and 48 h and then challenged with Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 12 h. The mRNA expression of selected immune genes-interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), and CXCL3 were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Results indicated that pretreatment with some Lactobacillus strains were able to differentially regulate the LPS inflammatory response in BME cells; however, strain-dependent differences were found. The most remarkable effects were found for Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL2074, which reduced the expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-8, and CXCL3, whereas Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL2084 diminished IL-1β, MCP-1, and IL-8 expression. The pre-stimulation of BME cells with the CRL2074 strain resulted in the upregulated expression of three negative regulators of the TLRs, including the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 (also called tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3, TNFAIP3), single immunoglobin IL-1 single receptor (SIGIRR), and Toll interacting protein (Tollip) after the LPS challenge. The CRL2084 pre-stimulation upregulated only Tollip expression. Our results demonstrated that the L. acidophilus CRL2074 strain possess remarkable immunomodulatory abilities against LPS-induced inflammation in BME cells. This Lactobacillus strain could be used as candidate for in vivo testing due to its beneficial effects in bovine mastitis through intramammary infusion. Our findings also suggest that the BME cells immunoassay system could be of value for the in vitro evaluation of the immunomodulatory abilities of LAB against the inflammation resulting from the intramammary infection with mastitis-related pathogens.
Probiotic lactobacillus and estrogen effects on vaginal epithelial gene expression responses to Candida albicans. R Doug Wagner;Shemedia J Johnson. 2012. J Biomed Sci. 19. PMID: 22715972

BACKGROUND: Vaginal epithelial cells have receptors, signal transduction mechanisms, and cytokine secretion capabilities to recruit host defenses against Candida albicans infections. This research evaluates how probiotic lactobacilli affect the defensive epithelial response. METHODS: This study used quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and a multiplex immunoassay to observe changes in the regulation of gene expression related to cytokine responses in the VK2 (E6/E7) vaginal epithelial cell line treated with 17β-estradiol, exposed to probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1® and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14® and challenged with C. albicans. Data were statistically evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests where appropriate. RESULTS: C. albicans induced mRNA expression of genes related to inflammatory cytokine responses associated with nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways. 17β-estradiol suppressed expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) mRNA. Probiotic lactobacilli suppressed C. albicans-induced nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor kinase kinase alpha (Iκκα), Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR6, IL-8, and TNFα, also suggesting inhibition of NF-κB signaling. The lactobacilli induced expression of IL-1α, and IL-1β mRNA, which was not inhibited by curcumin, suggesting that they induce an alternate inflammatory signal transduction pathway to NF-κB, such as the mitogen activated protein kinase and activator protein-1 (MAPK/AP-1) signal transduction pathway. Curcumin inhibited IL-13 secretion, suggesting that expression of this cytokine is mainly regulated by NF-κB signaling in VK2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that C. albicans infection induces pro-inflammatory responses in vaginal epithelial cells, and estrogen and lactobacilli suppress expression of NF-κB-related inflammatory genes. Probiotic lactobacilli may induce IL-1α and IL-1β expression by an alternate signal transduction pathway, such as MAPK/AP-1. Activation of alternate signaling mechanisms by lactobacilli to modify epithelial cell cytokine production may be a mechanism for probiotic modulation of morbidity in vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Non-viable immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 and its peptidoglycan improve systemic and respiratory innate immune response during recovery of immunocompromised-malnourished mice. Yanina Kolling;Susana Salva;Julio Villena;Gabriela Marranzino;Susana Alvarez. 2015. Int Immunopharmacol. 25. PMID: 25744605

The effect of non-viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 and its cell wall and peptidoglycan on respiratory immunity in malnourished mice was studied. Weaned mice were malnourished with a protein-free diet for 21d and received BCD during 7d (BCD) or BCD with nasal non-viable L. rhamnosus CRL1505 (BCD+UV) or its cell wall (BCD+CW) or peptidoglycan (BCD+PG) supplementation during last 2d of the treatment. Malnourished mice without treatment (MNC) and well-nourished mice (WNC) were used as controls. Mice were infected nasally with Streptococcus pneumoniae after treatments. Resistance against pneumococci was reduced in MNC mice. Repletion with BCD reduced lung and blood bacterial cell counts when compared to MNC mice but the counts did not reach the levels of the WNC group. However, when malnourished mice received BCD+UV, BCD+CW or BCD+PG, pneumococci was not detected in lung or blood samples. Pneumococcal infection increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in the respiratory tract, however the values were lower in MNC than in WNC mice. BCD+UV and BCD+PG groups showed values of phagocytes, IL-1β and IL-6 that were similar to WNC mice, while TNF-α was significantly higher in those groups when compared to WNC mice. Moreover, BCD+UV and BCD+PG treatments improved levels of respiratory IL-10, reaching values that were superior to those observed in WNC mice. The work demonstrates for the first time that non-viable probiotic bacteria or their cellular fractions could be an interesting alternative as mucosal immunomodulators, especially in immunocompromised hosts in which the use of live bacteria might be dangerous.
Lost in translation? The potential psychobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) fails to modulate stress or cognitive performance in healthy male subjects. John R Kelly;Andrew P Allen;Andriy Temko;William Hutch;Paul J Kennedy;Niloufar Farid;Eileen Murphy;Geraldine Boylan;John Bienenstock;John F Cryan;Gerard Clarke;Timothy G Dinan. 2016. Brain Behav Immun. 61. PMID: 27865949

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have identified certain probiotics as psychobiotics - live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) has been shown to reduce stress-related behaviour, corticosterone release and alter central expression of GABA receptors in an anxious mouse strain. However, it is unclear if this single putative psychobiotic strain has psychotropic activity in humans. Consequently, we aimed to examine if these promising preclinical findings could be translated to healthy human volunteers. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of L. rhamnosus on stress-related behaviours, physiology, inflammatory response, cognitive performance and brain activity patterns in healthy male participants. METHODS: An 8week, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was employed. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers participated. Participants completed self-report stress measures, cognitive assessments and resting electroencephalography (EEG). Plasma IL10, IL1β, IL6, IL8 and TNFα levels and whole blood Toll-like 4 (TLR-4) agonist-induced cytokine release were determined by multiplex ELISA. Salivary cortisol was determined by ELISA and subjective stress measures were assessed before, during and after a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT). RESULTS: There was no overall effect of probiotic treatment on measures of mood, anxiety, stress or sleep quality and no significant effect of probiotic over placebo on subjective stress measures, or the HPA response to the SECPT. Visuospatial memory performance, attention switching, rapid visual information processing, emotion recognition and associated EEG measures did not show improvement over placebo. No significant anti-inflammatory effects were seen as assessed by basal and stimulated cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS: L. rhamnosus was not superior to placebo in modifying stress-related measures, HPA response, inflammation or cognitive performance in healthy male participants. These findings highlight the challenges associated with moving promising preclinical studies, conducted in an anxious mouse strain, to healthy human participants. Future interventional studies investigating the effect of this psychobiotic in populations with stress-related disorders are required.
Dose-dependent immunomodulation of human dendritic cells by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35. Bertrand Evrard;Sophie Coudeyras;Annie Dosgilbert;Nicolas Charbonnel;Josette Alamé;Arlette Tridon;Christiane Forestier. 2011. PLoS One. 6. PMID: 21533162

The response of the immune system to probiotics remains controversial. Some strains modulate the cytokine production of dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and induce a regulatory response, while others induce conversely a pro-inflammatory response. These strain-dependent effects are thought to be linked to specific interactions between bacteria and pattern recognition receptors. We investigated the effects of a well characterized probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35, on human monocyte-derived immature DCs, using a wide range of bacterial concentrations (multiplicity of infection, MOI, from 0.01 to 100). DNA microarray and qRT-PCR analysis showed that the probiotic induced a large-scale change in gene expression (nearly 1,700 modulated genes, with 3-fold changes), but only with high doses (MOI, 100). The upregulated genes were mainly involved in immune response and identified a molecular signature of inflammation according to the model of Torri. Flow cytometry analysis also revealed a dose-dependent maturation of the DC membrane phenotype, until DCs reached a semi-mature state, with an upregulation of the membrane expression of CD86, CD83, HLA-DR and TLR4, associated with a down-regulation of DC-SIGN, MR and CD14. Measurement of the DC-secreted cytokines showed that Lcr35 induced a strong dose-dependent increase of the pro-Th1/Th17 cytokine levels (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12p70, IL-12p40 and IL-23), but only a low increase in IL-10 concentration. The probiotic L. rhamnosus Lcr35 therefore induce a dose-dependent immunomodulation of human DCs leading, at high doses, to the semi-maturation of the cells and to a strong pro-inflammatory effect. These results contribute to a fuller understanding of the mechanism of action of this probiotic, and thus of its potential clinical indications in the treatment of either infectious or IgE-dependent allergic diseases.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus intake can prevent the development of Candidiasis. Mariella Vieira Pereira Leão;Talita Angelina Aureliano Tavares;Célia Regina Gonçalves E Silva;Silvana Soleo Ferreira Dos Santos;Juliana Campos Junqueira;Luciane Dias de Oliveira;Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge. 2018. Clin Oral Investig. 22. PMID: 29372447

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus intake on the development of candidiasis and cytokines release. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Candida suspensions were inoculated into the oral cavity of experimentally immunosuppressed mice for candidiasis induction. The animals were divided into experimental groups: candidiasis with no probiotic intake (F), candidiasis with probiotic intake during Candida inoculation (FP), and candidiasis with probiotic intake 14 days before inoculation with Candida (FPP); and control groups: (C), (CP), and (CPP) without inducing candidiasis with probiotic intake in the same manner as groups F, FP, and FPP, respectively. After these periods, samples were collected from the oral cavity for yeast counts and, after euthanasia, the tongues of the animals were removed for histological analysis. Sera samples were also collected for analysis of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, INF-gamma, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-10. RESULTS: FP group showed lower Candida counts in the oral cavity, and the presence of Candida was almost not detected in FPP group. In tissues, the counts of fungi were significantly lower in FPP group, followed by FP. Groups that consumed probiotics also had lower histological and inflammatory infiltrates compared to F. Cytokines analysis demonstrated low concentrations of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-10 in all the groups, and no statistical difference between them. The production of IL-6 could be better detected, and the experimental groups that consumed the probiotic showed significant lower levels of this cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that L. rhamnosus intake, especially preventively, may avoid or decrease the development of candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This work adds scientific evidences that probiotics intake can avoid the development of candidiasis.
Lactobacillus salivarius LA307 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA305 attenuate skin inflammation in mice. S Holowacz;C Blondeau;I Guinobert;A Guilbot;S Hidalgo;J F Bisson. 2018. Benef Microbes. 9. PMID: 29409331

Oral probiotics potential for the management of dermatological diseases is vast. However, results of available studies in skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), are inconsistent, partly because probiotic effects are strain specific. Careful selection of probiotic strains is therefore indispensable to ensure efficacy of treatment. In this study, Lactobacillus salivarius LA307, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA305 and Bifidobacterium bifidum PI22, three strains that were previously identified for their interesting immunomodulatory properties in allergy and/or colitis models, were assessed in the prevention of chronic skin inflammation induced by repeated applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in hairless SKH-1 mice. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of skin lesions was performed together with measurements of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-17, IL-22, IL-10 and IL-4. Daily oral treatment with the three strains at the dose of 1×109 cfu/day for 3 weeks limited the development of chronic skin inflammation, the effects being strain dependent. Indeed the two Lactobacillus strains significantly limited the intensity of skin inflammation both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Macroscopic observations were correlated to the histological observations and the resulting microscopic score. This limitation of the development of AD-like skin lesions involved the modulation of cytokine production. Treatment with the two Lactobacillus strains induced a decrease in the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-22 and at the opposite an increase in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and also of IL-4. Globally, B. bifidum PI22 had lower benefits. These results obtained in mice suggest that L. salivarius LA307 and L. rhamnosus LA305 could be good candidates for preserving skin integrity and homeostasis via the modulation of the gut microbiota and that their use could be beneficial in dermatological conditions such as AD.
Probiotic and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 4B15 and Lactobacillus gasseri 4M13 isolated from infant feces. Nam Su Oh;Jae Yeon Joung;Ji Young Lee;Younghoon Kim. 2018. PLoS One. 13. PMID: 29444150

A total of 22 Lactobacillus strains, which were isolated from infant feces were evaluated for their probiotic potential along with resistance to low pH and bile salts. Eight isolates (L. reuteri 3M02 and 3M03, L. gasseri 4M13, 4R22, 5R01, 5R02, and 5R13, and L. rhamnosus 4B15) with high tolerance to acid and bile salts, and ability to adhere to the intestine were screened from 22 strains. Further, functional properties of 8 Lactobacillus strains, such as anti-oxidation, inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, cholesterol-lowering, and anti-inflammation were evaluated. The properties were strain-specific. Particularly, two strains of L. rhamnosus, 4B15 (4B15) and L. gasseri 4M13 (4M13) showed considerably higher anti-oxidation, inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, and cholesterol-lowering, and greater inhibition of nitric oxide production than other strains. Moreover, the two selected strains substantially inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 stimulated the treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with LPS. In addition, whole genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 4B15 and 4M13 indicated them as novel genomic strains. These results suggested that 4B15 and 4M13 showed the highest probiotic potential and have an impact on immune health by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Suppression of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Chemokine Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0389 Is Mediated by Secreted Bioactive Molecules. Michael P Jeffrey;Janice L Strap;Holly Jones Taggart;Julia M Green-Johnson. 2018. Front Immunol. 9. PMID: 30524427

Host intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) present at the gastrointestinal interface are exposed to pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and their products. Certain probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been associated with a range of host-immune modulatory activities including down-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression and cytokine production by IEC, with growing evidence suggesting that these bacteria secrete bioactive molecules with immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether two lactobacilli with immunomodulatory activity [Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 (Lr) and Lactobacillus helveticus R0389 (Lh)], produce soluble mediators able to influence IEC responses to Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR) ligands and pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β)], signals inducing IEC chemokine production during infection. To this end, the effects of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from Lr and Lh on IEC production of the pro-inflammatory chemokines interleukin (IL)-8 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1) induced by a range of host- or pathogen-derived pro-inflammatory stimuli were determined, and the impact on human HT-29 IEC and a primary IEC line (rat IEC-6) was compared. The Lr-CFS and Lh-CFS did not significantly modulate basal IL-8 production from HT-29 IECs or CINC-1 production from IEC-6 cells. However, both Lr-CFS and Lh-CFS significantly down-regulated IL-8 production from HT-29 IECs challenged with varied PRR ligands. Lr-CFS and Lh-CFS had differential effects on PRR-induced CINC-1 production by rat IEC-6 IECs, with no significant down-regulation of CINC-1 observed from IEC-6 IECs cultured with Lh-CFS. Further analysis of the Lr-CFS revealed down-regulation of IL-8 production induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα Preliminary characterization of the bioactive constituent(s) of the Lr-CFS indicates that it is resistant to treatment with DNase, RNase, and an acidic protease, but is sensitive to alterations in pH. Taken together, these results indicate that these lactobacilli secrete bioactive molecules of low molecular weight that may modulate host innate immune activity through interactions with IEC.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Ameliorates Liver Injury and Hypoxic Hepatitis in Rat Model of CLP-Induced Sepsis. Lei Ding;Yihang Gong;Zhengfei Yang;Baojia Zou;Xialei Liu;Baimeng Zhang;Jian Li. 2019. Dig Dis Sci. 64. PMID: 31049763

BACKGROUND: Probiotic use to prevent gastrointestinal infections in critical care has shown great promise in recent clinical trials. Although well-documented benefits of probiotic use in intestinal disorders, the potential for probiotic treatment to ameliorate liver injury and hypoxic hepatitis following sepsis has not been well explored. METHODS: In order to evaluate, if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treatment in septic rats will protect against liver injury, this study used 20-22-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats which were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture to establish sepsis model and examine mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β, NLRP3, IL-6, TNF-a, VEGF, MCP1, NF-kB and HIF-1α in the liver via real-time PCR, Elisa and Western blot. RESULTS: This study showed that LGG treatment significantly ameliorated liver injury following experimental infection and sepsis. Liver mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β, NLRP3, IL-6, TNF-a, VEGF, MCP1, NF-kB and HIF-1α were significantly reduced in rats receiving LGG. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our study demonstrated that LGG treatment can reduce liver injury following experimental infection and sepsis and is associated with improved hypoxic hepatitis. Probiotic therapy may be a promising intervention to ameliorate clinical liver injury and hypoxic hepatitis following systemic infection and sepsis.
Systemic administration of probiotics reduces the severity of apical periodontitis. L Cosme-Silva;R Dal-Fabbro;L T A Cintra;V R Dos Santos;C Duque;E Ervolino;S Mogami Bomfim;J E Gomes-Filho. 2019. Int Endod J. 52. PMID: 31356689

AIM: To evaluate the effect of systemic administration of probiotics on the severity of apical periodontitis (AP). METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were used. AP was induced in the maxillary left/right first molars. The animals were arranged into groups: Control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Probiotics were administered orally for gavage (109 colony-forming units diluted in 5 mL of water for 30 days) during the development of AP. After 30 days, cardiac puncture was performed to analyse the complete blood count. Moreover, microbiological analysis of the root canal contents and saliva was performed. Then, the animals were euthanized and the jaw removed for histopathological and IL-10, IL-1β and IL-6 immunolabeling analyses. After the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality, the Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test was performed for nonparametric data, and analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test was performed for parametric data (P < 0.05). RESULTS: No significance difference was observed in the blood profiles and in the counts of microorganisms from the saliva samples among the groups (P > 0.05). Total microorganism counts in the root canal, the inflammatory infiltrate and the immunostaining for IL-1β and IL-6 in AP were significantly lower in the probiotic groups when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). IL-10 was significantly more immunolabled in the probiotic groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Supplementation with probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus) had a significant effect on the severity of apical periodontitis in rats, demonstrating the anti-inflammatory effect of probiotics on the development of apical periodontitis.
Probiotics exert reciprocal effects on autophagy and interleukin-1β expression in Salmonella-infected intestinal epithelial cells via autophagy-related 16L1 protein. W-T Lai;F-C Huang. 2020. Benef Microbes. 10. PMID: 31965835

This study aimed to examine how probiotics affect autophagy and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression in Salmonella-infected intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The original Caco-2 cells and ATG16L1 siRNA-transfected Caco-2 cells were pretreated or left untreated with probiotics, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG; ATCC 53103) and Bifidobacterium longum (BL; ATCC15697), and these cells were infected with wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium strain, SL1344). Western blot analysis was used to detect the conversion of microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3)-I to LC3-II. Immunofluorescence was used to analyse LC3+ autophagosomes. Membrane proteins were analysed by western blot for protein (ATG16L1, NOD2), and total RNA by RT-PCR for mRNA expression [ATG16L1, vitamin D receptor (VDR)]. We demonstrated that probiotics enhanced both VDR mRNA, and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and autophagy-related protein 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) protein expression. The enhanced expression resulted in autophagic LC3-II protein expression and formation of LC3 punctae in Salmonella-infected Caco-2 cells. It was observed that ATG16L1 siRNA could attenuate this mechanism, and ATG16L1-mediated IL-1β expression was suppressed by probiotics. These results suggest that probiotics enhance autophagy and also suppress inflammatory IL-1β expression in Salmonella-infected IECs via membrane ATG16L1 protein expression. Probiotics may enhance autophagic clearance of Salmonella infection and modulate inflammatory responses to protect the hosts. Hence, we can assume that probiotics could treat infectious and autoimmune diseases through mechanisms involving ATG16L1.
A comprehensive post-market review of studies on a probiotic product containing Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011. L M Foster;T A Tompkins;W J Dahl. 2011. Benef Microbes. 2. PMID: 22146691

The probiotic preparation Lacidofil® has been commercially available in Europe, Asia and North America since 1995. This product is a combination of two strains, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011. The strains have been evaluated for safety, identity and mechanisms of probiotic action in vitro, in animal models and human clinical trials. The strains adhered to human epithelial cells, helped to maintain the barrier function and blocked the adhesion of a number of pathogens, allowing them to be cleared from the intestine. The strains also elicited an anti-inflammatory response by down-regulating IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α. In various stress models, the probiotic combination facilitated better coping and outcomes which may be through the maintenance of barrier function and suppressing inflammation. Overall, pre-clinical studies suggest a potential anti-infectious role for the strains and the combination. Clinical studies, primarily in children, have identified Lacidofil as an effective supplement for various gastrointestinal diseases such as antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and acute gastroenteritis. Recent research has also indicated that Lacidofil may be beneficial for individuals with atopic dermatitis or vaginal dysbacteriosis.
The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 promote cholesterol efflux and suppress inflammation in THP-1 cells. Hong-sup Yoon;Jae-hyun Ju;Ji-eun Lee;Hyun-joon Park;Jung-min Lee;Hyeun-kil Shin;Wilhelm Holzapfel;Kun-young Park;Myoung-Sool Do. 2012. J Sci Food Agric. 93. PMID: 22806829

BACKGROUND: The balance between the rate of cholesterol uptake/accumulation and the rate of cholesterol efflux is reflected in the amount of lipid accumulation in macrophages. Based upon the fact that liver X receptors (LXRs) play a role in cholesterol efflux, we studied the effects of probiotics on cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory action in macrophages. We confirmed changes in LXR expression by treatment of LXR-transfected CHO-K1 cells with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and co-cultured THP-1 cells with LAB to investigate changes in cholesterol efflux and inflammation. RESULTS: The experiment with CHO-K1 cells showed upregulation of LXR-β by LAB. Treatment of THP-1 cells with LAB promoted LXR expression in THP-1, which eventually led to significant upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. The treatment with live LAB also significantly promoted cholesterol efflux. LAB suppressed expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which resulted from activation of LXR. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 activated LXR and induced cholesterol efflux by promoting expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Both strains also suppressed proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α. This study could account for the observation that LAB may block foam cell formation by cholesterol efflux and immune modulation.
Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Profiles of Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factors Produced by Human Decidual Cells Are Altered by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Supernatant. Wei Li;Siwen Yang;Sung O Kim;Gregor Reid;John R G Challis;Alan D Bocking. 2014. Reprod Sci. 21. PMID: 24429676

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 supernatant (GR-1SN) on secretion profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors from primary cultures of human decidual cells. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased the output of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1B, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, interferon gamma [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]); anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN, IL-4, IL-9, and IL-10); chemokines (IL-8, eotaxin, IFN-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α], macrophage inflammatory protein-1β [MIP-1β], and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]); and growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [CSF] 3, CSF-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA]). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1SN alone significantly increased CSF-3, MIP-1α MIP-1β, and RANTES but decreased IL-15 and IP-10 output. The GR-1SN also significantly or partially reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17, and IP-10; partially reduced LPS-induced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1RN, IL-4 and IL-10, and LPS-induced VEGFA output but did not affect CSF-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-9. Our results demonstrate that GR-1SN attenuates the inflammatory responses to LPS by human decidual cells, suggesting its potential role in ameliorating intrauterine infection.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG protects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Yvonne Ritze;Gyöngyi Bárdos;Anke Claus;Veronika Ehrmann;Ina Bergheim;Andreas Schwiertz;Stephan C Bischoff. 2014. PLoS One. 9. PMID: 24475018

OBJECTIVE: Experimental evidence revealed that obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to changes in intestinal permeability and translocation of bacterial products to the liver. Hitherto, no reliable therapy is available except for weight reduction. Within this study, we examined the possible effect of the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as protective agent against experimental NAFLD in a mouse model. METHODS: Experimental NAFLD was induced by a high-fructose diet over eight weeks in C57BL/J6 mice. Fructose was administered via the drinking water containing 30% fructose with or without LGG at a concentration resulting in approximately 5×10(7) colony forming units/g body weight. Mice were examined for changes in small intestinal microbiota, gut barrier function, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations in the portal vein, liver inflammation and fat accumulation in the liver. RESULTS: LGG increased beneficial bacteria in the distal small intestine. Moreover, LGG reduced duodenal IκB protein levels and restored the duodenal tight junction protein concentration. Portal LPS (P≤0.05) was reduced and tended to attenuate TNF-α, IL-8R and IL-1β mRNA expression in the liver feeding a high-fructose diet supplemented with LGG. Furthermore liver fat accumulation and portal alanine-aminotransferase concentrations (P≤0.05) were attenuated in mice fed the high-fructose diet and LGG. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that LGG protects mice from NAFLD induced by a high-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms of protection likely involve an increase of beneficial bacteria, restoration of gut barrier function and subsequent attenuation of liver inflammation and steatosis.
Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and acidophilus R0052) reduce the expression of toll-like receptor 4 in mice with alcoholic liver disease. Meegun Hong;Seung Woo Kim;Sang Hak Han;Dong Joon Kim;Ki Tae Suk;Yeon Soo Kim;Myong Jo Kim;Moon Young Kim;Soon Koo Baik;Young Lim Ham. 2015. PLoS One. 10. PMID: 25692549

OBJECTIVE: The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4) in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been widely established. We evaluated the biological effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and acidophilus R0052), KRG (Korea red ginseng), and urushiol (Rhus verniciflua Stokes) on ALD, including their effects on normal and high-fat diet in mice. METHODS: One hundred C57BL/6 mice were classified into normal (N) and high-fat diet (H) groups. Each group was divided into 5 sub-groups: control, alcohol, alcohol+probiotics, alcohol+KRG, and alcohol+urushiol. A liver function test, histology, electron-microscopy, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-10, and TLR 4 were evaluated and compared. RESULTS: In the N group, probiotics, KRG, and urushiol significantly reduced levels of TNF-α (12.3±5.1, 13.4±3.9, and 12.1±4.3 vs. 27.9±15.2 pg/mL) and IL-1β (108.4±39.4, 75.0±51.0, and 101.1±26.8 vs. 162.4±37.5 pg/mL), which were increased by alcohol. Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics and urushiol (0.7±0.2, and 0.8±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.3, p<0.001). In the H group, IL-10 was significantly increased by probiotics and KRG, compared with alcohol (25.3±15.6 and 20.4±6.2 vs. 7.6±5.6 pg/mL) and TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics (0.8±0.2 vs. 1.0±0.3, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was down-regulated by probiotics in the normal and high-fat diet groups. Probiotics, KRG, and urushiol might be effective in the treatment of ALD by regulating the gut-liver axis.
Preferential production of G-CSF by a protein-like Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 secretory factor through activating TLR2-dependent signaling events without activation of JNKs. Shahab Meshkibaf;Jӧrg Fritz;Marcelo Gottschalk;Sung Ouk Kim. 2015. BMC Microbiol. 15. PMID: 26502905

BACKGROUND: Different species and strains of probiotic bacteria confer distinct immunological responses on immune cells. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (GR-1) is a probiotic bacterial strain found in both the intestinal and urogenital tracts, and has immunomodulatory effects on several cell types including macrophages. However, detailed immunological responses and the signaling mechanism involved in the response are largely unknown. RESULTS: We examined the production of GR-1-induced cytokines/chemokines and signaling events in macrophages. Among 84 cytokines and chemokines examined, GR-1 discretely induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mRNA at highest levels (>60-fold) without inducing other cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α (<5-fold). The toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/6-agonist PAM2CSK4, TLR2/1-agonist PAM3CSK4 and TLR4-agonist lipopolysaccharide induced all of these inflammatory cytokines at high levels (>50-fold). The TLR2 ligand lipoteichoic acid activated all mitogen-activated kinases, Akt and NF-κB; whereas, GR-1 selectively activated extracellular regulated kinases and p38, NF-κB and Akt, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in a TLR2-dependent manner. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that lack of JNKs activation by GR-1 caused inefficient production of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not G-CSF production. A secreted heat-labile protein-like molecule, 30-100 kDa in size, induced the preferential production of G-CSF. CONCLUSION: This study elucidated unique signaling events triggered by GR-1, resulting in selective production of the immunomodulatory cytokine G-CSF in macrophages.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 Attenuate Gardnerella vaginalis-Infected Bacterial Vaginosis in Mice. Se-Eun Jang;Jin-Ju Jeong;Su-Young Choi;Hyunji Kim;Myung Joo Han;Dong-Hyun Kim. 2017. Nutrients. 9. PMID: 28545241

Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta®) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV). Inflammatory markers were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Oral or intravaginal administration of PM resulted in colonization of L1 and L2 in the vagina. Oral or intravaginal administration of L1, L2, or PM significantly inhibited GV-induced epithelial cell disruption, myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB activation, and IL-1β and TNF-α expression (p < 0.05). Administration of these probiotics also inhibited IL-17 and RORγt expression but increased IL-10 and Foxp3 expression. Of these probiotics, L2 most effectively attenuated GV-induced BV, followed by L1 and PM. Oral administration was more effective against GV-induced BV than intravaginal administration. L1 and L2 also significantly inhibited the adherence of GV to HeLa cells (a human cervical cancer cell line) and GV growth in vitro. In addition, L1 and L2 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages and the differentiation of splenocytes into Th17 cells in vitro, but increased their differentiation into Treg cells. Our study suggests that L1, L2, and PM attenuated GV-induced vaginosis by regulating both vaginal and systemic innate and adaptive immune responses rather than direct competition or killing of GV in the vagina.
Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains Stimulate the Inflammatory Response and Activate Human Macrophages. L M Rocha-Ramírez;R A Pérez-Solano;S L Castañón-Alonso;S S Moreno Guerrero;A Ramírez Pacheco;M García Garibay;C Eslava. 2017. J Immunol Res. 2017. PMID: 28758133

Lactobacilli have been shown to promote health functions. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which four different strains of probiotics affected innate immunity, such as regulation of ROS, cytokines, phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, signaling by NF-κB pp65, and TLR2 activation. The production of ROS was dependent on the concentration and species of Lactobacillus. The results obtained from the tested strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus KLSD, L. helveticus IMAU70129, and L. casei IMAU60214) showed that strains induced early proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-8,TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-6. However, IL-1β expression was induced only by L. helveticus and L. casei strains (after 24 h stimulation). Phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of macrophages against various pathogens, such as S. aureus, S. typhimurium, and E. coli, were increased by pretreatment with Lactobacillus. The nuclear translocation NF-κB pp65 and TLR2-dependent signaling were also increased by treatment with the probiotics. Taken together, the experiments demonstrate that probiotic strains of Lactobacillus exert early immunostimulatory effects that may be directly linked to the initial inflammation of the response of human macrophages.
Baicalin, Baicalein, and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus JB3 Alleviated Helicobacter pylori Infections in Vitro and in Vivo. Mu-En Chen;Chiu-Hsian Su;Jai-Sing Yang;Chi-Cheng Lu;Yu-Chi Hou;Jin-Bin Wu;Yuan-Man Hsu. 2018. J Food Sci. 83. PMID: 30468256

Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The flavonoid compounds baicalin and baicalein found in many medicinal plants exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect. The administration of Lactobacillus strains reducing the risk of H. pylori infection is well accepted. In this study, the therapeutic effects against H. pylori infection of baicalin, baicalein, and L. rhamnosus JB3 (LR-JB3), isolated from a dairy product, were investigated. Compared to baicalin, baicalein exhibited stronger anti-H. pylori activity and cytotoxicity on human gastric cancer epithelial AGS cells. Baicalin and baicalein both suppressed the vacA gene expression of H. pylori and interfered with the adhesion and invasion ability of H. pylori to AGS cells, as well as decreased H. pylori-induced interleukin (IL)-8 expression. In the mice infection model, high dosages of baicalin and baicalein inhibited H. pylori growth in the mice stomachs. Serum IL-1β levels and H. pylori-specific serum IgM and IgA levels in mice treated with baicalin and baicalein were decreased. Moreover, a synergistic therapeutic effect of baicalein and LR-JB3 on eradicating H. pylori infections was observed. Thus, administrating baicalin, baicalein, or LR-JB3 for an H. pylori infection could offer similar therapeutic effects to administering antibiotics while not disturbing the balance of gut microbiota. This study revealed the effects of baicalin, baicalein, and LR-JB3 on attenuating the virulence of H. pylori. The synergistic effect with baicalein and LR-JB3 provides the experimental rationale for testing the reliability, safety, and efficacy of this approach in higher animals and perhaps ultimately in humans to eradicate H. pylori infections. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Baicalin and baicalein exert health promotion and avoidance of H. pylori infections by interfering with H. pylori growth and virulence. Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB3 was used to reduce the gastric inflammation caused by H. pylori infection.
NEC-like intestinal injury is ameliorated by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in parallel with SIGIRR and A20 induction in neonatal mice. Alain Cuna;Wei Yu;Heather L Menden;Linda Feng;Pugazhendhi Srinivasan;Susana Chavez-Bueno;Ishfaq Ahmed;Shahid Umar;Venkatesh Sampath. 2020. Pediatr Res. . PMID: 32053825

BACKGROUND: Exaggerated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and intestinal dysbiosis are key contributors to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) decreases NEC in preterm infants, but underlying mechanisms of protection remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that LGG alleviates dysbiosis and upregulates TLR inhibitors to protect against TLR-mediated gut injury. METHODS: Effects of LGG (low- and high-dose) on intestinal pro-inflammatory TLR signaling and injury in neonatal mice subjected to formula feeding (FF) and NEC were determined. 16S sequencing of stool and expression of anti-TLR mediators SIGIRR (single immunoglobulin interleukin-1-related receptor) and A20 were analyzed. RESULTS: FF induced mild intestinal injury with increased expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Kupffer cell (KC) (mouse homolog of IL-8) compared to controls. LGG decreased IL-1β and KC in association with attenuated TLR signaling and increased SIGIRR and A20 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Low- and high-dose LGG had varying effects on gut microbiome despite both doses providing gut protection. Subsequent experiments of LGG on NEC revealed that pro-inflammatory TLR signaling and intestinal injury were also decreased, and SIGIRR and A20 expression increased, in a dose-dependent manner with LGG pre-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: LGG protects against intestinal TLR-mediated injury by upregulating TLR inhibitors without major changes in gut microbiome composition.
Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and European cranberry (Vaccinium microcarpon) proanthocyanidins: isolation, identification, and bioactivities. Petri Kylli;Liisa Nohynek;Riitta Puupponen-Pimiä;Benita Westerlund-Wikström;Tiina Leppänen;Jukka Welling;Eeva Moilanen;Marina Heinonen. 2011. J Agric Food Chem. 59. PMID: 21370878

European, small-fruited cranberries (Vaccinium microcarpon) and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were characterized for their phenolic compounds and tested for antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiadhesive, and antiinflammatory effects. The main phenolic compounds in both lingonberries and cranberries were proanthocyanidins comprising 63-71% of the total phenolic content, but anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and flavonols were also found. Proanthocyanidins are polymeric phenolic compounds consisting mainly of catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin units. In the present study, proanthocyanidins were divided into three groups: dimers and trimers, oligomers (mDP 4-10), and polymers (mDP > 10). Catechin, epicatechin, A-type dimers and trimers were found to be the terminal units of isolated proanthocyanidin fractions. Inhibitions of lipid oxidation in liposomes were over 70% and in emulsions over 85%, and in most cases the oligomeric or polymeric fraction was the most effective. Polymeric proanthocyanidin extracts of lingonberries and cranberries were strongly antimicrobial against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas they had no effect on other bacterial strains such as Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Escherichia coli. Polymeric fraction of cranberries and oligomeric fractions of both lingonberries and cranberries showed an inhibitory effect on hemagglutination of E. coli, which expresses the M hemagglutin. Cranberry phenolic extract inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner, but it had no major effect on iNOS of COX-2 expression. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL cranberry phenolic extract inhibited LPS-induced IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α production. Lingonberry phenolics had no significant effect on IL-1β production but inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production at a concentration of 100 μg/mL similarly to cranberry phenolic extract. In conclusion the phenolics, notably proanthocyanidins (oligomers and polymers), in both lingonberries and cranberries exert multiple bioactivities that may be exploited in food development.
Modulation of Toll-like receptor ligands and Candida albicans-induced cytokine responses by specific probiotics. Theo S Plantinga;Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen;Cor Jacobs;Leo A B Joosten;Belinda van't Land;Johan Garssen;Mihai G Netea. 2012. Cytokine. 59. PMID: 22521032

Probiotics have been proposed as modulators of gut inflammation, especially in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In order to be able to use them in these clinical conditions, their capacity to modulate immune responses towards other stimuli or microorganisms has to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, three different potentially probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium breve (NumRes 204), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NumRes1) and Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001), have been studied for their potential to modulate responses to stimulation with pure pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) ligands or to the gut commensal fungus Candida albicans. Cytokine production induced by PRR ligands or C. albicans was assessed in conditions of simultaneous stimulation or preincubation of primary immune cells with Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus spp. Results indicate that simultaneous stimulation leads to potentiation of IL-1β and IL-6 production, while the TNFα and IFN-γ production was inhibited. In settings of pre-incubation with these potentially probiotic strains, lower production of TNFα was observed in the presence of B. breve. Moreover, C. albicans-induced IL-17 production was decreased after pre-incubation with both Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus probiotic strains. Whereas C. albicans induced cytokines are dampened by the tested probiotic strains, TNFα and IL-6 production by pure pattern-recognition receptor ligands are potentiated. Interestingly, an important role of Toll-like receptor 9 signalling that involves JNK kinase in the modulatory effects of these probiotic strains has been identified. In conclusion, specific probiotic strains exhibit cross-tolerance effects towards other inflammatory stimuli, especially C. albicans, which might have beneficial effects on gut inflammation.
Immunomodulatory properties of Enterococcus faecium JWS 833 isolated from duck intestinal tract and suppression of Listeria monocytogenes infection. Hyun Jong Choi;Myeong Su Shin;Sang Myeong Lee;Wan Kyu Lee. 2012. Microbiol Immunol. 56. PMID: 22709265

The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of Enterococcus faecium JWS 833 (JWS 833) isolated from duck intestine and compare them to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a proven immunity-enhancing probiotic. To investigate the immune-enhancing properties of JWS 833, production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines was measured in mouse peritoneal macrophages. In addition, a Listeria monocytogenes challenge model was used in the assessment. It was found that heat-killed JWS 833 stimulates mouse peritoneal macrophages to produce NO, interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and that oral administration of viable JWS833 enhances NO, IL-1β and TNF-α synthesis upon L. monocytogenes challenge. Moreover, mice fed with JWS 833 were partially protected against lethal challenge with L. monocytogenes. JWS 833 strain has significantly greater immunostimulatory properties than LGG. Moreover, JWS 833 strain partially protects mice against lethal challenge with L. monocytogenes. JWS 833, a novel strain of E. faecium isolated from duck intestine, is potentially a useful feed supplement for controlling pathogens and enhancing host immune responses.
Transcriptomic Analysis of the Innate Antiviral Immune Response in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Influence of Immunobiotic Lactobacilli. Leonardo Albarracin;Hisakazu Kobayashi;Hikaru Iida;Nana Sato;Tomonori Nochi;Hisashi Aso;Susana Salva;Susana Alvarez;Haruki Kitazawa;Julio Villena. 2017. Front Immunol. 8. PMID: 28210256

Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 and Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506 are immunobiotic strains able to increase protection against viral intestinal infections as demonstrated in animal models and humans. To gain insight into the host-immunobiotic interaction, the transcriptomic response of porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells to the challenge with viral molecular associated pattern poly(I:C) and the changes in the transcriptomic profile induced by the immunobiotics strains CRL1505 and CRL1506 were investigated in this work. By using microarray technology and reverse transcription PCR, we obtained a global overview of the immune genes involved in the innate antiviral immune response in PIE cells. Stimulation of PIE cells with poly(I:C) significantly increased the expression of IFN-α and IFN-β, several interferon-stimulated genes, cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and genes involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis. It was also determined that lactobacilli differently modulated immune gene expression in poly(I:C)-challenged PIE cells. Most notable changes were found in antiviral factors (IFN-α, IFN-β, NPLR3, OAS1, OASL, MX2, and RNASEL) and cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, IL-6, CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL10) that were significantly increased in lactobacilli-treated PIE cells. Immunobiotics reduced the expression of IL-15 and RAE1 genes that mediate poly(I:C) inflammatory damage. In addition, lactobacilli treatments increased the expression PLA2G4A, PTGES, and PTGS2 that are involved in prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. L. rhamnosus CRL1505 and L. plantarum CRL1506 showed quantitative and qualitative differences in their capacities to modulate the innate antiviral immune response in PIE cells, which would explain the higher capacity of the CRL1505 strain when compared to CRL1506 to protect against viral infection and inflammatory damage in vivo. These results provided valuable information for the deeper understanding of the host-immunobiotic interaction and their effect on antiviral immunity. The comprehensive transcriptomic analyses successfully identified a group of genes (IFN-β, RIG1, RNASEL, MX2, A20, IL27, CXCL5, CCL4, PTGES, and PTGER4), which can be used as prospective biomarkers for the screening of new antiviral immunobiotics in PIE cells and for the development of novel functional food and feeds, which may help to prevent viral infections.
Effects of intravaginal lactic acid bacteria on bovine endometrium: Implications in uterine health. Sandra Genís;Àlex Bach;Anna Arís. 2017. Vet Microbiol. 204. PMID: 28532798

Infection and inflammation of the endometrium after calving compromise uterine health, contributing to decreased reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Twenty multiparous cows were distributed in two groups and treated intra-vaginally with a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) composed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pedioccocus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus reuteri, or with a sterile carrier (CON) twice per week during 3 wk. At the slaughterhouse, vaginal and endometrial swabs were taken for E. coli and Lactobacillus quantification. Endometriums were collected and cut forming explants that were analyzed for the expression of 10 genes related to innate immunity and infection or submitted to an ex vivo inflammation model. In the ex vivo experiment, explants were infected with E. coli or inflammated by treating them with IL-1β and also E. coli. The secretion of IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 was evaluated by ELISA in the supernatants of the ex vivo cultures. Lactobacillus counts did not differ between endometria of LAB and CON cows, although E. coli vaginal counts tended to be lower in LAB than in CON cows. The expression of B-defensins and MUC1, indicators of infected uterus, was down-regulated in explants of LAB-treated cows. No differences were observed between LAB and CON explants in the ex vivo inflammation experiment. These results indicate that the vaginal application of the LAB combination used herein was unable to reach the endometrium and regulating the innate immunity at uterine level when applied into the vagina; however, it may be capable of modulating the pathogenic environment in the vaginal tract.
Probiotic attributes and prevention of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory stress in RAW264.7 macrophages and human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2) by newly isolated Weissella cibaria strains. Shashank Singh;Ruchika Bhatia;Ankit Singh;Paramdeep Singh;Ramandeep Kaur;Pragyanshu Khare;Ravi K Purama;Ravneet K Boparai;Praveen Rishi;Padma Ambalam;Sanjay Kumar Bhadada;Mahendra Bishnoi;Jaspreet Kaur;Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi. 2018. Food Funct. 9. PMID: 29393319

Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are known to modulate gut associated immune responses. Not many studies have reported on the role of Weissella species in preventing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced proinflammatory stress in murine macrophages as well as in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Therefore, the present study was taken up to evaluate the probiotic attributes of four newly isolated Weissella strains (two each from fermented dosa batter and a human infant faecal sample); these attributes are cholesterol reduction, adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucin and their ability to prevent LPS-induced nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα) production by the murine macrophages and IL-8 production by the human epithelial cells. Reduction in LPS induced pro-inflammatory stress was compared with a well-studied probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The results suggested that the strains were tolerant to gastric conditions (pH 3.0) and bile salts. In addition, the strains exhibited moderate cell surface hydrophobicity, cholesterol reduction and adhesion to Caco-2 cells and gastric mucin. All the strains could prevent LPS-induced nitric oxide and IL-6 production in murine macrophages, while strain 28 alone prevented IL-1β production. All the strains could prevent IL-8 production by the human epithelial cells. The present study led to the first line selection of W. cibaria 28 as a putative strain for future studies as it showed adhesion to Caco-2 cells and gastric mucin and cholesterol reduction besides preventing LPS-induced pro-inflammatory stress in macrophages and in human colonic epithelial cells.
Multifactorial inhibition of lactobacilli against the respiratory tract pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis. M F L van den Broek;I De Boeck;I J J Claes;V Nizet;S Lebeer. 2018. Benef Microbes. 9. PMID: 29633637

Probiotics, mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), are widely focused on gastrointestinal applications. However, recent microbiome studies indicate that LAB can be endogenous members of other human body sites such as the upper respiratory tract (URT). Interestingly, DNA-based microbiome research suggests an inverse correlation between the presence of LAB and the occurrence of potential pathogens, such as Moraxella catarrhalis, an important URT pathogen linked to otitis media, sinusitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, a direct interaction between these microbes has not been explored in detail. This study investigated the direct antipathogenic effects of Lactobacillus species, including several well-documented probiotic strains, on M. catarrhalis using agar-based assays, time course analysis, biofilm assays and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing. These assays were performed using spent culture supernatans (SCS) at two pHs (4.3 and 7) and D- and/or L-lactic acid at three pHs (2, 4 and 7). In addition, cell line assays for adhesion competition and immunomodulation were used to substantiate the inhibitory effect of lactobacilli against M. catarrhalis. A proportion of Lactobacillus strains, including the model probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, showed a strong and direct activity against M. catarrhalis. Screening of the activity of the SCS after different treatments demonstrated that lactic acid has an important antimicrobial activity against this pathogen - at least in vitro - with mean MIC values for D- and L-lactic acid varying between 0.5 and 27 g/l depending on the pH. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus GG also decreased the adhesion of M. catarrhalis to human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells with more than 50%, and the expression of mucin MUC5AC, pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α at least 1.2 fold. This study suggests that several lactobacilli and their key metabolite lactic acid are possible candidates for probiotic therapeutic interventions against URT infections.
Effect of dietary probiotics on colon length in an inflammatory bowel disease-induced murine model: A meta-analysis. Sung-Il Ahn;Sangbuem Cho;Nag-Jin Choi. 2019. J Dairy Sci. 103. PMID: 31785874

We investigated the effect of probiotic supplementation on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by meta-analysis. We included 30 studies to assess the effect of probiotic administration. We estimated the effect size using standardized mean difference, and we evaluated the statistical heterogeneity of the effect size using Cochran's Q test, followed by meta-ANOVA and meta-regression analysis to explain the heterogeneity of the effect size using a mixed-effects model. We conducted Egger's linear regression test to evaluate publication bias. Among the factors evaluated, colon length and myeloperoxidase showed the greatest Q statistic and I2 index, respectively. Colon length, transforming growth factor-β, IL-10, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione showed positive effect sizes in the fixed- and random-effects models. The others (spleen weight, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ, disease activity index, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, histological score, and macroscopic inflammatory score) showed negative effect sizes in the fixed- and random-effects models. Probiotics showed a significant effect on all investigated factors, except IL-10. In meta-ANOVA and meta-regression analysis, Lactobacillus paracasei was the most effective probiotic for colon length. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, and a mixture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Saccharomyces boulardii (LC + SB) were effective for colon length, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and disease activity index. Lactobacillus rhamnosus was most effective for IL-10 and IFN-γ. Dietary probiotics are effective in improving the symptoms of IBD. Although the results of this meta-analysis had some limitations due to a lack of animal experiments, they will be meaningful to people with IBD.
Adhesion and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in a sea buckthorn based beverage matrix. Srijita Sireswar;Sutapa Biswas;Gargi Dey. 2020. Food Funct. 11. PMID: 32154524

The consumption of probiotic based foods due to their health promoting effects has increased over the years. The consumption of probiotic based foods, due to their health promoting effects, has increased over the years. Due to this rising demands, the application platforms of the food industry have directed their efforts in the development of novel functional probiotic beverages. The presence of dietary phenolics and other beneficial components has made fruit-based matrices more popular for probiotic delivery. However, very few studies to date have evaluated the impact of carrier matrices on the in vivo functionality of probiotic strains with specific biomarkers and targeted towards specific disease conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of a sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) based, malt supplemented, beverage matrix (SBT + M) on the physiological characteristics of the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) (LR). No significant difference in the auto-aggregation and co-aggregation rates of LR fortified in SBT + M was observed compared to LR alone. Storage conditions (4 °C for 14 days) did not affect the survival and the adhesion potential of LR to the HCT116 cell line. More importantly, this study also determined the protective effect of SBT + M on the in vivo functionality of LR in alleviating LPS induced inflammation in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The results showed that administration with SBT + M + LR significantly alleviated the LPS induced colonic damage, evidenced by the decrease in the overall histological and goblet cell scores compared to the LPS-treated group. The protective effect of SBT + M + LR was higher compared to the effects of SBT + M or LR alone. The colonic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) showed a marked decline by 84.7% and 86.5% respectively. The highest expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was recorded in the SBT + M + LR treated group (p < 0.001). The overall results reveal that the administration of SBT + M + LR showed the best effects in alleviating the LPS induced intestinal damage compared to the other test groups (SBT + M and LR). These protective effects could be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in the SBT matrix. Our study indicates the contributory role of the carrier matrix and merits further investigation for its use as a potential therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal inflammation.
Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 on Different Parameters Related to Health Status of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the Protection Against Yersinia ruckeri. Yalda Hooshyar;Abdolmohammad Abedian Kenari;Hamed Paknejad;Hassan Gandomi. None. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. . PMID: 32246325

In the current study, we investigated the effect of a probiotic bacterium (Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469) microencapsulated with alginate and hi-maize starch and coated with chitosan on improving growth factors, body composition, blood chemistry, and the immune response of rainbow trout (initial weight: 18.41 ± 0.32 g). Four experimental diets were formulated to feed fish for 60 days. They were control diet without any additive (C), diet added with beads without probiotic (E), a probiotic sprayed to the diet (L.r), and encapsulated probiotic supplemented diet (E-L.r). The results indicated that feeding with E-Lr significantly improved weight gain (84.98 g) and feed conversion ratio (0.95) compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Also, fish fed E-Lr diet had a significantly higher value of whole-body protein (17.51%), total protein in the blood (4.98 g/dL), lysozyme (30.66 U/mL), alternative complement pathway hemolytic activity (134 U/mL), superoxide dismutase (203 U/mg protein), and catalase (528.33 U/mg protein) (P < 0.05) as compared to those fed the control diet. Similarly, a higher relative expression of immune-related genes such as interleukin-1 (Il-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-1α) were reported in those fed E-L.r and L.r diets respectively. Interestingly, the fish fed dietary E-L.r had a significantly lower value of lipid in the whole body (4.82%) and cholesterol in the blood (160.67%) in comparison with those fed the control diet (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiment, all groups were challenged by Yersinia ruckeri where the survival rate of rainbow trout fed dietary E-L.r (70.36%) was statistically higher than that of the others (P < 0.05). Overall, the results suggested that encapsulated probiotic Lact. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 acted better than unencapsulated probiotic and has a potential to improve growth performance, flesh quality, and the immune response of rainbow trout.
Assessment of Probiotics Mixture on Memory Function, Inflammation Markers, and Oxidative Stress in an Alzheimer's Disease Model of Rats. Shima Mehrabadi;Seyed Shahabeddin Sadr. 2020. Iran Biomed J. 24. PMID: 32306720

Background: The most important cause of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Probiotics are microorganisms that are believed to be beneficial to human and animals. Probiotics reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in some cases. Therefore, this study determined the effects of probiotics mixture on the biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in an AD model of rats. Methods: In this study, 50 rats were allocated to five groups, namely control, sham, and AD groups with Aβ1-40 intra-hippocampal injection, as well as AD + rivastigmine and AD + probiotics groups with Aβ1-40 intra-hippocampal injection and 2 ml (1010 CFU) of probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Bifidobacterium infantis) orally once a day for 10 weeks. MWM was used to assess memory and learning. To detect Aβ plaque, Congo red staining was used. Oxidative stress was monitored by measuring the MDA level and SOD activity, and to assess inflammation markers (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus, ELISA method was employed.. Results: Spatial memory improved significantly in treatment group as measured by MWM. Probiotics administration reduced Aβ plaques in AD rats. MDA decreased and SOD increased in the treatment group. Besides, probiotics reduced IL-1β and TNF-α as inflammation markers in the AD model of rats. Conclusion: Our data revealed that probiotics are helpful in attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in AD.
Effects of probiotic therapy on the activity and activation of mild rheumatoid arthritis--a pilot study. K Hatakka;J Martio;M Korpela;M Herranen;T Poussa;T Laasanen;M Saxelin;H Vapaatalo;E Moilanen;R Korpela. 2003. Scand J Rheumatol. 32. PMID: 14626627

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty-one RA patients were randomised to receive 2 capsules of LGG or a placebo twice daily in double-blind fashion for 12 months. Arthritis activity was evaluated by clinical examination, HAQ index, and laboratory tests (e.g. ESR, CRP, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines). RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in the clinical parameters, biochemical variables and HAQ index between the study groups over the intervention period. The mean number of tender and swollen joints decreased from 8.3 to 4.6 in the Lactobacillus group and from 5.5 to 4.8 in the placebo group (p = 0.41). According to the global assessment the RA activity was reduced in 71% (LGG group) vs. 30% (controls) (p = 0.15). Serum IL-1 beta increased slightly in the LGG group (p = 0.07), but no differences were seen in IL-6, TNF-alpha, MPO, IL-10 or 1L-12. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were no statistical significant differences in the activity of RA, more subjects in the LGG group reported subjective well being. More studies on the effects of probiotic bacteria in RA are needed.
A combination of lactic acid bacteria regulates Escherichia coli infection and inflammation of the bovine endometrium. Sandra Genís;Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi;Àlex Bach;Francesc Fàbregas;Anna Arís. 2016. J Dairy Sci. 100. PMID: 27837977

Uterine function in cattle is compromised by bacterial contamination and inflammation after calving. The objective of this study was to select a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to decrease endometrium inflammation and Escherichia coli infection. Primary endometrial epithelial cells were cultured in vitro to select the most favorable LAB combination modulating basal tissue inflammation and E. coli infection. Supernatants were obtained to determine expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and E. coli infection was evaluated after harvesting the tissue and plate counting. The selected LAB combination was tested in uterus explants to assess its capacity to modulate basal and acute inflammation (associated with E. coli infection). The combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus reuteri at a ratio of 25:25:2, respectively, reduced E. coli infection in vitro with (89.77%) or without basal tissue inflammation (95.10%) compared with single LAB strains. Lactic acid bacteria treatment reduced CXCL8 and IL1B expression 4.7- and 2.2-fold, respectively, under acute inflammation. Ex vivo, the tested LAB combination reduced acute inflammation under E. coli infection, decreasing IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 up to 2.2-, 2.5-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. In the total inflammation model, the LAB combination decreased IL-8 1.6-fold and IL-6 1.2-fold. Ultrastructural evaluation of the tissue suggested no direct interaction between the LAB and E. coli, although pathological effects of E. coli in endometrial cells were greatly diminished or even reversed by the LAB combination. This study shows the promising potential of LAB probiotics for therapeutic use against endometrial inflammation and infection.
Hepatoprotective Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Through the Modulation of Gut Permeability and Inflammasomes in a Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease in Zebrafish. Juliana Paula Bruch-Bertani;Carolina Uribe-Cruz;Amanda Pasqualotto;Larisse Longo;Raquel Ayres;Carolina Bortolin Beskow;Afonso Luis Barth;Daiana Lima-Morales;Fábio Meurer;Gabriel Tayguara Silveira Guerreiro;Themis Reverbel da Silveira;Mário Reis Álvares-da-Silva;Valesca Dall'Alba. 2019. J Am Coll Nutr. 39. PMID: 31241423

Objective: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is among the leading causes of death from liver disease. Among the factors involved in its pathogenesis are inflammation and increased intestinal permeability. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on hepatic lipid accumulation, activation of inflammasomes, and gut permeability markers in experimental model of ALD with zebrafish.Methods: An experiment was conducted to assess the effective LGG dose capable of promoting intestinal colonization. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 64/group): ethanol group (E), ethanol + probiotic group (EP), and control group (C). Groups E and EP were exposed to 0.5% ethanol concentration for 28 days. At the end of this period, animals were euthanized, and livers were collected for Oil Red staining and assessment of the inflammasome system. Intestines were collected for evaluation of gut permeability markers.Results: The dose of 1.55 × 106 UFC LGG/fish/d promoted intestinal colonization. Group EP presented lower hepatic lipid accumulation, lower il-1β expression, and higher cldn15a expression when compared to group E.Conclusions: Supplementation with LGG was protective for hepatic steatosis in ALD model. In addition, LGG influenced the modulation of the inflammatory response and markers of gut permeability, improving the gut barrier structure.