Abstract
Inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium longum HY8001 against Vero cytotoxin of Escherichia coli O157:H7. S H Kim;S J Yang;H C Koo;W K Bae;J Y Kim;J H Park;Y J Baek;Y H Park. 2001. J Food Prot. 64. PMID: 11726142

Vero cytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC), such as E. coli O157:H7, are emerging foodborne pathogens worldwide. VTs are associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Attachment of the B subunit of VTs to its receptor, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), at gut epithelium is the primary step and, consequently, the A subunit of VTs inhibits protein synthesis in the target cell. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta, up-regulate Gb3 expression, increase sensitivity to VTs, and enhance VT action in developing disease. Currently, there is a growing interest in probiotics, given the increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In particular, much work on bifidobacteria among probiotics, regarded as microorganisms targeted for technological and therapeutic applications, has been performed. In Korea, the neutralizing effect of the culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium longum HY8001, Korean isolate, against the VTs from E. coli O157:H7 was found. Therefore, this study focused on the raveling of the inhibitory effect of B. longum HY8001 against VTs, through the interference B subunit of VTs and Gb3 interaction. Mice were inoculated intragastrically with B. longum HY8001 culture supernatant before and after challenge with E. coli O157:H7. Control mice were inoculated intragastrically only with E. coli O157:H7. Cytokine, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta levels in sera and expression of their mRNA were decreased, and expression of Gb3 in renal tubular epithelial cells was reduced in mice treated with B. longum HY8001 culture supernatant. In competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the culture supernatant of B. longum HY8001 primarily binds VTs to interfere the VTs with Gb3 interaction. These results suggest that soluble substance(s) in B. longum HY8001 culture supernatant may have inhibitory activity on the expression of Gb3, VT-Gb3 interaction, or both. Further study should be done to elucidate the property of soluble substances in B. longum HY8001 culture supernatant.
Bifidobacterium longum as an oral delivery system of endostatin for gene therapy on solid liver cancer. Geng-Feng Fu;Xi Li;Ya-Yi Hou;Yan-Rong Fan;Wen-Hua Liu;Gen-Xing Xu. 2004. Cancer Gene Ther. 12. PMID: 15565182

To overcome difficulties that hampered widespread application of a specific delivery system in cancer gene therapy and to inhibit the growth of solid liver cancer, we utilized a strain of Bifidobacterium longum as a delivery system to transport an endostatin gene that can inhibit growth of tumor. The B. longum strain with the endostatin gene (B. longum-En) was taken orally by tumor-bearing nude mice through drencher preparation. The results showed that B. longum-En could strongly inhibit the growth of solid liver tumor in nude mice and prolong the survival time of tumor-bearing nude mice. Furthermore, tumor growth was inhibited more efficiently when the B. longum-En treatment included selenium. Enriching the B. longum-En treatment with selenium improves the activity of NK and T cells and stimulates the activity of IL-2 and TNF-alpha in BALB/c mice. These results suggest that B. longum may be a highly specific and efficient vector for transporting anticancer genes in cancer gene therapy.
Differential immunomodulatory properties of Bifidobacterium logum strains: relevance to probiotic selection and clinical applications. M Medina;E Izquierdo;S Ennahar;Y Sanz. 2007. Clin Exp Immunol. 150. PMID: 17956582

Modulation of host immunity is one of the proposed benefits of the consumption of probiotics. Nonetheless, comparative studies on the immunological properties that support the selection of strains of the same species for specific health benefits are limited. In this study, the ability of different strains of Bifidobacterium longum to induce cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been evaluated. Live cells of all B. longum strains greatly stimulated regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production. Strains of the same species also induced specific cytokine patterns, suggesting that they could drive immune responses in different directions. The probiotic strain B. longum W11 stimulated strongly the production of T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines while B. longum NCIMB 8809 and BIF53 induced low levels of Th1 cytokines and high levels of IL-10. The effects of cell-surface components obtained by sonication of B. longum strains overall confirm the effects detected by stimulation of PBMCs with live cells, indicating that these components are important determinants of the immunomodulatory activity of B. longum. Genomic DNA of some strains stimulated the production of the Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN)-gamma and TNF-alpha, but not that of IL-10. None of the cell-free culture supernatants of the studied strains was able to induce TNF-alpha production, suggesting that the proinflammatory component of these strains is associated mainly with structural cell molecules. The results suggest that despite sharing certain features, some strains can perform a better functional role than others and their careful selection for therapeutic use is desirable.
Bifidobacterium longum with fructo-oligosaccharides in patients with non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Michele Malaguarnera;Marco Vacante;Tijana Antic;Maria Giordano;Giuseppe Chisari;Rosaria Acquaviva;Silvana Mastrojeni;Giulia Malaguarnera;Antonio Mistretta;Giovanni Li Volti;Fabio Galvano. 2011. Dig Dis Sci. 57. PMID: 21901256

BACKGROUND: Increased exposure to intestinal bacterial products may contribute to the pathogenesis of non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bifidobacteria are predominant bacterial species in the human gut microbiota and have been considered to exert a beneficial effect on human health by maintaining the equilibrium of the resident microbiota. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium longum with fructo-oligosaccharides (Fos) in the treatment of NASH. METHODS: A total of 66 patients were randomly and equally divided into two groups receiving Bifidobacterium longum with Fos and lifestyle modification (i.e., diet and exercise) versus lifestyle modification alone. The following variables were assessed at -4 (beginning of the dietary lead-in period), 0 (randomization), 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks: aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), bilirubin, albumin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum endotoxins. Liver biopsies were performed at entry and repeated after 24 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: At the end of study period, we observed that the Bifidobacterium longum with Fos and lifestyle modification group versus the lifestyle modification alone group showed significant differences in the AST -69.6 versus -45.9 IU/mL (P < 0.05), LDL cholesterol -0.84 versus -0.18 mmol/L (P < 0.001), CRP -2.9 versus -0.7 mg/L (P < 0.05), TNF-α -0.45 versus -0.12 ng/mL (P < 0.001), HOMA-IR -1.1 versus -0.6 (P < 0.001), serum endotoxin -45.2 versus -30.6 pg/mL (P < 0.001), steatosis (P < 0.05), and the NASH activity index (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Bifidobacterium longum with Fos and lifestyle modification, when compared to lifestyle modification alone, significantly reduces TNF-α, CRP, serum AST levels, HOMA-IR, serum endotoxin, steatosis, and the NASH activity index.
Effect of natural commensal-origin DNA on toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling cascade, chemokine IL-8 expression, and barrier integritiy of polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Darab Ghadimi;Michael de Vrese;Knut J Heller;Juergen Schrezenmeir. 2009. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 16. PMID: 19714766

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The intestinal epithelium is constantly exposed to high levels of genetic material like bacterial DNA. Under normal physiological conditions, the intestinal epithelial monolayer as a formidable dynamic barrier with a high-polarity structure facilitates only a controlled and selective flux on components between the lumen and the underlining mucosa and even is able to facilitate structure-based macromolecules movement. The aim of this study was to test the effect of natural commensal-origin DNA on the TLR9 signaling cascade and the barrier integrity of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). METHODS: : Polarized HT-29 and T84 cells were treated with TNF-alpha in the presence or absence of DNA from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium longum. TLR9 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression was assessed by semiquantitative and TaqMan real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression of TLR9 protein, degradation of inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IkappaBalpha), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAP) phosphorylation were assessed by Western blotting. To further reveal the role of TLR9 signaling, the TLR9 gene was silenced by siRNA. IL-8 secretion was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity was assessed by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter gene assays. As an indicator of tight junction formation and monolayer integrity of epithelial cell monolayers, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was repetitively monitored. Transmonolayer movement of natural commensal-origin DNA across monolayers was monitored using qRT-PCR and nested PCR based on bacterial 16S rRNA genes. RESULTS: In response to apically applied natural commensal-origin DNA, polarized HT-29 and T84 cells enhanced expression of TLR9 in a specific manner, which was subsequently associated with attenuation of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-mediated IL-8 expression. TLR9 silencing abolished this inhibitory effect. Apically applied LGG DNA attenuated TNF-alpha-enhanced NF-kappaB activity by reducing IkappaBalpha degradation and p38 phosphorylation. LGG DNA did not decrease the TER but rather diminished the TNF-alpha-induced TER reduction. Translocation of natural commensal-origin DNA into basolateral compartments did not occur under tested conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that TLR9 signaling mediates, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of natural commensal-origin DNA on the gut because TLR9 silencing abolished the inhibitory effect of natural commensal-origin DNA on TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 secretion in polarized IECs. The nature of the TLR9 agonist, the polarity of cells, and the tight junction integrity of IECs has to be taken into account in order to predict the outcome of TLR9 signaling. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010).
Bifidobacterium longum HY8004 attenuates TNBS-induced colitis by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in mice. In-Ah Lee;Eun-Ah Bae;Jung-Hee Lee;Hoyong Lee;Young-Tae Ahn;Chul-Sung Huh;Dong-Hyun Kim. 2009. Inflamm Res. 59. PMID: 19882302

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms of the preventive activity of lactic acid bacteria in colitis, the inhibitory effect of Bifidobacterium longum HY8004, which potently inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro, was examined in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitic mice. METHODS: We measured the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro and to inhibit colitis outcomes, colon shortening, and myeloperoxidase activity in TNBS-induced colitis in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice. We also measured levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and their transcription factor, NF-kappaB, in the colon by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: Among the LAB tested, B. logum HY8004 most potently inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro but did not inhibit TLR-4-linked NF-kappaB activation in HEK cells. Oral administration of HY8004 inhibited TNBS-induced colon shortening and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice as well as IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha expression. B. longum HY8004 also inhibited TNBS-induced lipid peroxidation, TLR-4 expression, and NF-kappaB activation in the colon of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice. CONCLUSION: B. longum HY8004 can improve colitis via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation as well as NF-kappaB activation.
Gnotobiotic mouse immune response induced by Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from infants. Odile Ménard;Marie-José Butel;Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau;Anne-Judith Waligora-Dupriet. 2007. Appl Environ Microbiol. 74. PMID: 18083875

Bifidobacterium, which is a dominant genus in infants' fecal flora and can be used as a probiotic, has shown beneficial effects in various pathologies, including allergic diseases, but its role in immunity has so far been little known. Numerous studies have shown the crucial role of the initial intestinal colonization in the development of the intestinal immune system, and bifidobacteria could play a major role in this process. For a better understanding of the effect of Bifidobacterium on the immune system, we aimed at determining the impact of Bifidobacterium on the T-helper 1 (T(H)1)/T(H)2 balance by using gnotobiotic mice. Germfree mice were inoculated with Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705, whose genome is sequenced, and with nine Bifidobacterium strains isolated from infants' fecal flora. Five days after inoculation, mice were killed. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) gene expressions in the ileum and IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-10, IL-4, and IL-5 secretions by splenocytes cultivated for 48 h with concanavalin A were quantified. Two Bifidobacterium species had no effect (B. adolescentis) or little effect (B. breve) on the immune system. Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium dentium, and one B. longum strain induced T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokines at the systemic and intestinal levels. One B. longum strain induced a T(H)2 orientation with high levels of IL-4 and IL-10, both secreted by splenocytes, and of TGF-beta gene expression in the ileum. The other two strains induced T(H)1 orientations with high levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha splenocyte secretions. Bifidobacterium's capacity to stimulate immunity is species specific, but its influence on the orientation of the immune system is strain specific.
Bifidobacterium microbiota and parameters of immune function in elderly subjects. Arthur C Ouwehand;Nynke Bergsma;Riikka Parhiala;Sampo Lahtinen;Miguel Gueimonde;Harriet Finne-Soveri;Timo Strandberg;Kaisu Pitkälä;Seppo Salminen. 2008. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 53. PMID: 18336547

Faecal and serum samples were collected over a period of 6 months from 55 institutionalized elderly subjects, who were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants were randomized in one of the three treatment groups: intervention (two probiotic Bifidobacterium longum strains: 2C and 46), placebo and commercial control (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12). The faecal Bifidobacterium microbiota was characterized by genus and species-specific PCR. Serum levels of the cytokines IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each participant harboured on average approximately three different bifidobacterial species. The most frequently detected species were B. longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Depending on the treatment, the intervention resulted in specific changes in the levels of certain Bifidobacterium species, and positive correlations were found between the different species. Negative correlations were observed between the levels of Bifidobacterium species and the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The presence of faecal B. longum and Bifidobacterium animalis correlated with reduced serum IL-10. The anti-inflammatory TGF-beta1 levels were increased over time in all three groups, and the presence of Bifidobacterium breve correlated with higher serum TGF-beta1 levels. This indicates that modulation of the faecal Bifidobacterium microbiota may provide a means of influencing inflammatory responses.
Dendritic cells from Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes differ from spleen dendritic cells in their response to commensal gut bacteria. L N Fink;H Frøkiaer. 2008. Scand J Immunol. 68. PMID: 18565117

Commensal gut bacteria have potent effects on the immune system, which are partially mediated by intestinal dendritic cells (DC). Distinct commensals confer different properties to in vitro-generated DC. The aim of the present study was to reveal strain-dependent maturation patterns in primary DC. To this end, we compared the response of mouse Peyer's patch (PP) DC, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) DC and spleen DC to the commensal bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum Q46, Lactobacillus acidophilus X37 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Bacterial maturation of DC occurred independently of tissue origin. Expression of CCR7 and CD103 on the surface of MLN DC, necessary for the induction of gut-homing regulatory T cells, increased with stimulation by Gram-positive commensals. Bacteria-dependent cytokine production (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha) was similar in spleen and MLN DC, and contaminant cells in these DC preparations produced IFN-gamma in response to L. acidophilus. In contrast, PP DC produced IL-6 only in response to E. coli, little IL-10 and no TNF-alpha, and this low cytokine production was not due to inhibition by IL-10 or TGF-beta. Bifidobacteria downregulate IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-12 production induced in in vitro-generated DC by L. acidophilus. Similar inhibition was observed in splenic DC, but not in MLN DC. MLN cells responded to bacterial stimulation with higher IFN-gamma production than spleen cells, possibly due to the presence of more responsive natural killer cells. Commensal bacteria therefore play specific roles in the gut immune system distinguishable from the effect they would have if recognized by the systemic immune system.
Dietary supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum strain AH1206 increases its cecal abundance and elevates intestinal interleukin-10 expression in the neonatal piglet. Tina M Herfel;Sheila K Jacobi;Xi Lin;Zeina E Jouni;Maciej Chichlowski;Chad H Stahl;Jack Odle. 2013. Food Chem Toxicol. 60. PMID: 23872134

Intestinal microbiota of infants differ in response to gestational age, delivery mode and feeding regimen. Dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria is one method of promoting healthy populations. We examined the impact of a novel probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum (AH1206) on the health, growth and development of neonatal pigs as a model for infants. Day-old pigs were fed milk-based formula containing AH1206 at 0, 10⁹, or 10¹¹ CFU/d for 18 d (n=10/treatment). Differences were not detected in growth, organ weights or body temperatures (P>0.1); however pigs fed the high dose showed a small (2%) reduction in feed intake. Bacterial translocation was not affected as indicated by total anaerobic and aerobic counts (CFU) in samples of spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (P>0.1). Feeding AH1206 had no effects on fecal consistency, but increased the density of B. longum in the cecum. Ileal TNF expression tended to increase (P=0.08) while IL-10 expression increased linearly (P=0.01) with supplementation. Based upon findings in the suckling piglet model, we suggest that dietary supplementation with B. longum (AH1206) may be safe for human infants based on a lack of growth, development or deleterious immune-related effects observed in piglets.
Probiotics modulate inflammatory cytokine secretion from inflamed mucosa in active ulcerative colitis. A-P Bai;Q Ouyang;X-R Xiao;S-F Li. 2006. Int J Clin Pract. 60. PMID: 16494642

Enteric microflora of ulcerative colitis patients becomes aberrant. The abnormal interaction between microflora and intestinal mucosal immune system leads the mucosal inflammation. Probiotic administration may recover the commensal microflora and normalise the host-microbial interaction. In this experiment, we cocultured colonic biopsies from active ulcerative colitis patients with bifidobacterium to investigate the modulation effect of probiotics on inflamed colonic tissues and its possible mechanism. Colonic biopsies from active ulcerative colitis were cocultured for 24 h with Bifidobacterium longum. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-8 in supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the biopsies were fixed using paraffin and the expression of NF-kappaB P65 of tissues was studied using immunohistochemical staining. The concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-8 in supernatants of tissues cocultured with probiotics were lower than those cultured alone. The number of lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) with nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) P65 positive in cocultured tissues was also decreased. When cocultured with inflamed tissues of active ulcerative colitis, probiotics could inhibit NF-kappaB activation in LPMC and down-regulate inflammatory cytokine secretion from inflamed tissues of active ulcerative colitis.
Bifidobacterium strains suppress in vitro the pro-inflammatory milieu triggered by the large intestinal microbiota of coeliac patients. Marcela Medina;Giada De Palma;Carmen Ribes-Koninckx;Miguel Calabuig;Yolanda Sanz. 2008. J Inflamm (Lond). 5. PMID: 18980693

BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease (CD) is an enteropathy characterized by an aberrant immune response to cereal-gluten proteins. Although gluten peptides and microorganisms activate similar pro-inflammatory pathways, the role the intestinal microbiota may play in this disorder is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the faecal microbiota of coeliac patients could contribute to the pro-inflammatory milieu characteristic of CD and the possible benefits of bifidobacteria. METHODS: The effect of faeces of 26 CD patients with active disease (mean age 5.5 years, range 2.1-12.0 years), 18 symptom-free coeliac disease (SFCD) patients (mean age 5.5 years, range 1.0-12.3 years) on a gluten-free diet for 1-2 years; and 20 healthy children (mean age 5.3 years, range 1.8-10.8 years) on induction of cytokine production and surface antigen expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined. The possible regulatory roles of Bifidobacterium longum ES1 and B. bifidum ES2 co-incubated with faecal samples were also assessed in vitro. RESULTS: Faeces of both active CD and SFCD patients, representing an imbalanced microbiota, significantly increased TNF-alpha production and CD86 expression in PBMCs, while decreased IL-10 cytokine production and CD4 expression compared with control samples. Active CD-patient samples also induced significantly higher IFN-gamma production compared with controls. However, Bifidobacterium strains suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern induced by the large intestinal content of CD patients and increased IL-10 production. Cytokine effects induced by faecal microbiota seemed to be mediated by the NFkappaB pathway. CONCLUSION: The intestinal microbiota of CD patients could contribute to the Th1 pro-inflammatory milieu characteristic of the disease, while B. longum ES1 and B. bifidum ES2 could reverse these deleterious effects. These findings hold future perspectives of interest in CD therapy.
Prevention of TNBS-induced colitis by different Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains is associated with an expansion of gammadeltaT and regulatory T cells of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Marianna Roselli;Alberto Finamore;Silvia Nuccitelli;Paola Carnevali;Patrizia Brigidi;Beatrice Vitali;Fabio Nobili;Rita Rami;Ivana Garaguso;Elena Mengheri. 2009. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 15. PMID: 19504616

BACKGROUND: Probiotics may protect against inflammatory bowel disease through regulation of lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) function. Data are lacking on possible involvement of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether different probiotic mixtures prevented gut inflammatory disease and the role of both IELs and LPLs. METHODS: BALB/c mice received 2 probiotic mixtures orally for 3 weeks, as Mix1 (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum), or Mix2 (Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis). Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Probiotics in stools were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Colon subpopulations of IELs and LPLs were assayed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokines were measured by cytometric bead array (CBA). RESULTS: All probiotics colonized the intestine. The 2 mixtures prevented the TNBS-induced intestinal damage, and Mix1 was the most effective. The Mix1 protection was associated with a reduction in CD4(+) cells of IELs and LPLs, an increase in gammadeltaT cells of IELs, and a decrease in gammadeltaT cells of LPLs. An expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells of IELs was induced by Mix1 and Mix2. Both probiotic mixtures inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 production and upregulated interleukin (IL)-10. In addition, Mix1 prevented the TNBS-induced increase of IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma. CONCLUSIONS: The 2 probiotic mixtures were able to prevent the TNBS-induced colitis; the L. acidophilus and B. longum mixture was the most effective. Other than an involvement of LPLs, our results report a novel importance of the IELs population in probiotic protection.
Evaluation of anti-colitic effect of lactic acid bacteria in mice by cDNA microarray analysis. Hoyong Lee;Young-Tae Ahn;Jung-Hee Lee;Chul-Sung Huh;Dong-Hyun Kim. 2009. Inflammation. 32. PMID: 19711178

To evaluate the anti-colitic effect of lactic acid bacteria by cDNA microarray analysis, a lactic acid bacteria mixture (LM) consisting of Lactobacillus brevis HY7401, L. suntoryeus HY7801 and Bifidobacterium longum HY8004 was orally administered to dextran sulfate (DSS)-induced colitic mice and the expression profile of numerous genes was assessed. DSS treatment caused colitic outcomes such as inflammation and colon shortening. DSS also up-regulated the expression of inflammation-related genes: pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines, including IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, CCL2, CCL4, CCL7, CCL24, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10, and their receptors CCR3 and CCR7, and other colitis-related genes such as COX-2, PAP, MMP family, S100a8, S100a9 and DEFA1. LM treatment inhibited the mRNA expression of inflammation-related and tissue remodeling genes induced by DSS as well as the colitic symptoms. LM inhibition for the DSS-induced expression of the representative inflammatory markers, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and COX-2, was supported by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. These findings suggest that LM ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by regulating inflammatory-related cytokines as well as tissue remodeling genes.
Effects of a gluten-free diet on gut microbiota and immune function in healthy adult human subjects. Giada De Palma;Inmaculada Nadal;Maria Carmen Collado;Yolanda Sanz. 2009. Br J Nutr. 102. PMID: 19445821

Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota and host's health, particularly in patients suffering from food-related diseases. Coeliac disease (CD) is a permanent intolerance to cereal gluten proteins and the only therapy for the patients is to adhere to a life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). In the present preliminary study, the effects of a GFD on the composition and immune function of the gut microbiota were analysed in ten healthy subjects (mean age 30.3 years) over 1 month. Faecal microbiota was analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The ability of faecal bacteria to stimulate cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was determined by ELISA. No significant differences in dietary intake were found before and after the GFD except for reductions (P = 0.001) in polysaccharides. Bifidobacterium, Clostridium lituseburense and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii proportions decreased (P = 0.007, P = 0.031 and P = 0.009, respectively) as a result of the GFD analysed by FISH. Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium longum counts decreased (P = 0.020, P = 0.001 and P = 0.017, respectively), while Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli counts increased (P = 0.005 and P = 0.003) after the GFD assessed by qPCR. TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma, IL-10 and IL-8 production by PBMC stimulated with faecal samples was also reduced (P = 0.021, P = 0.037, P = 0.002 and P = 0.007, respectively) after the diet. Therefore, the GFD led to reductions in beneficial gut bacteria populations and the ability of faecal samples to stimulate the host's immunity. Thus, the GFD may constitute an environmental variable to be considered in treated CD patients for its possible effects on gut health.
Glycosaminoglycan degradation-inhibitory lactic acid bacteria ameliorate 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Bomi Lee;Jung-Hee Lee;Hye-Sung Lee;Eun-Ah Bae;Chul-Sung Huh;Young-Tae Ahn;Dong-Hyun Kim. 2009. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 19. PMID: 19597321

To evaluate the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), we measured the inhibitory effect of several LAB isolated from intestinal microflora and commercial probiotics against the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation by intestinal bacteria. Bifidobacterium longum HY8004 and Lactobacillus plantarum AK8-4 exhibited the most potent inhibition. These LAB inhibited colon shortening and myeloperoxidase production in 2,4,6- trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitic mice. These LAB also blocked the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, as well as of COX-2, in the colon. LAB also blocked activation of the transcription factor, NF-kappaB, and expression of TLR-4 induced by TNBS. In addition, LAB reduced the TNBS-induced bacterial degradation activities of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. These findings suggest that GAG degradation-inhibitory LAB may improve colitis by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine expression via TLR-4-linked NF-kB activation and by inhibiting intestinal bacterial GAG degradation.
Characterization of immunostimulatory CpG-rich sequences from different Bifidobacterium species. Odile Ménard;Valérie Gafa;Nathalie Kapel;Bertrand Rodriguez;Marie-José Butel;Anne-Judith Waligora-Dupriet. 2010. Appl Environ Microbiol. 76. PMID: 20208019

The beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium are partly due to its immunostimulatory properties. These immunostimulatory properties may be linked to the presence of unmethylated CpG motifs specific to bacterial DNA, which may induce a TH1 response by activating Toll-like receptors (TLR). Using in silico analyses, PCR amplification, and dot blotting, we characterized the CpG content of various bifidobacterial strains and evaluated the immunostimulatory properties and genomic heterogeneity of these motifs in the genus. Our in silico study, based on entire genome sequences from five bifidobacterial strains, showed that Bifidobacterium genomes contain numerous CpG motifs, including 5'-purine-purine-CG-pyrimidine-pyrimidine-3' and 5'-purine-TCG-pyrimidine-pyrimidine-3' motifs, and biologically active sequences previously identified in lactic acid bacteria. We identified four CpG-rich sequences with Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705. Two sequences with a percent G+C of about 68% included 14 and 16 CpG motifs. Two sequences with a percent G+C of about 60% included 16 and 6 CpG motifs. These sequences induce the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) through a pattern of TLR9 stimulation on RAW 264.7 macrophages. No link could be established between their immunostimulatory properties, the number of CpG motifs, and percent G+C. We investigated inter- and intraspecies heterogeneity in 71 strains of various origins. These sequences were highly conserved in the genus. No link was found between the presence of the CpG-rich sequence and the origin of the strains (healthy, allergic, or preterm infants). The high frequency of CpG motifs in the DNA of Bifidobacterium may play an important role in the immunostimulatory properties of commensal or probiotic bifidobacterial strains.
Clinical trial: the microbiological and immunological effects of synbiotic consumption - a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in active Crohn's disease. H Steed;G T Macfarlane;K L Blackett;B Bahrami;N Reynolds;S V Walsh;J H Cummings;S Macfarlane. 2010. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 32. PMID: 20735782

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory illness in which the immune response against gut microorganisms is believed to drive an abnormal immune response. Consequently, modification of mucosal bacterial communities, and the immune effects they elicit, might be used to modify the disease state. AIM: To investigate the effects of synbiotic consumption on disease processes in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted involving 35 patients with active Crohn's disease, using a synbiotic comprising Bifidobacterium longum and Synergy 1. Clinical status was scored and rectal biopsies were collected at the start, and at 3- and 6-month intervals. Transcription levels of immune markers and mucosal bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were quantified using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Significant improvements in clinical outcomes occurred with synbiotic consumption, with reductions in both Crohn's disease activity indices (P = 0.020) and histological scores (P = 0.018). The synbiotic had little effect on mucosal IL-18, INF-gamma and IL-1beta; however, significant reductions occurred in TNF-alpha expression in synbiotic patients at 3 months (P = 0.041), although not at 6 months. Mucosal bifidobacteria proliferated in synbiotic patients. CONCLUSION: Synbiotic consumption was effective in improving clinical symptoms in patients with active Crohn's disease.
Immunomodulatory impact of a synbiotic in T(h)1 and T(h)2 models of infection. Mario Cazzola;Thomas A Tompkins;Maria G Matera. 2010. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 4. PMID: 20929951

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The immunomodulatory activity of a synbiotic combination containing three bacterial strains (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071) and short-chain fructooligosaccharide was examined in two distinct infectious rat models. In the T(h)1 model, Wistar rats were administered the synbiotic combination for 2 weeks prior to challenge with a single oral dose of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli or vehicle. In the T(h)2 model, pretreated rats were challenged with a single subcutaneous dose of hook worm, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Blood samples were collected 3 hours or 4 days postchallenge and serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured. RESULTS: Significant reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were observed in both models suggesting a single, unifying mode of action on an upstream regulator. The N. brasiliensis study also compared the effect of the individual strains to synbiotic. For most of cytokines the combination appeared to average the effect of the individual strains with the exception of IL-4 and IL-10 where there was apparent synergy for the combination. Furthermore, the cytokine response varied by strain. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that this synbiotic combination of these three microbes could be beneficial in both T(h)1 and T(h)2 diseases.