Abstract
In vitro and in vivo investigations of probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough. Yang Li;Tongjie Liu;Minjie Zhao;Hao Zhong;Wenxin Luo;Fengqin Feng. 2019. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 103. PMID: 30610287

A total of 88 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough and five of them were selected based on their bile resistance. All the five strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In vitro probiotic properties of the L. plantarum strains including tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions, aggregation activity, and cholesterol removal ability were assessed. Two representatives, L. plantarum ZJUFT34 and L. plantarum ZJUFT17, were intragastrically administered to male C57BL/6J mice of 4-week age for 6 weeks to evaluate their in vivo health-promoting effects. The results indicated that L. plantarum ZJUFT34, L. plantarum ZJUFHN9, and L. plantarum ZJUFAH5 could survive the 3-h incubation in simulated gastric juice with a pH value of 2.0, while L. plantarum ZJUFT32 and L. plantarum ZJUFT17 exhibited better autoaggregation activities and coaggregation activities with pathogens. All the strains showed a cholesterol removal ability in vitro. However, L. plantarum ZJUFT34 or L. plantarum ZJUFT17 administration did not significantly change the serum total cholesterol in vivo. But the ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased by the L. plantarum administration. Besides, L. plantarum ZJUFT17 significantly lowered serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations. Furthermore, the administration of the LAB strains showed significant influences on lipid metabolism-related gut microbiota. These findings suggested that the L. plantarum strains may benefit the prevention of metabolic syndrome.
The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Y44 oral administration on inflammation and lipid metabolism in obese mice fed with a high fat diet. Yujun Liu;Yuan Gao;Fenglian Ma;Mengying Sun;Guangqing Mu;Yanfeng Tuo. 2020. Food Funct. 11. PMID: 32530448

In our previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum Y44 showed antioxidant activity and favorable gastric and intestinal transit tolerance. The purpose of this study is to determine whether L. plantarum Y44 could ameliorate intestinal inflammation and lipid metabolism disorder in obese mice fed with a high-fat diet. L. plantarum Y44 was administered by gavage to the mice fed with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The mice fed with a high fat diet only showed sustainably elevated body weight, liver lipid metabolism disorder, intestinal inflammation and a lower short chain fatty acid content in feces. Oral administration of L. plantarum Y44 regulated lipid metabolism disorder by inhibiting the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the liver of obese mice, reducing the contents of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) and increasing the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in the serum of obese mice. Oral administration of L. plantarum Y44 up-regulated the expression of colon tight junction protein such as claudin-1 and occludin, down-regulated p38 and phospho-p38 levels and reduced serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Oral administration of L. plantarum Y44 increased Muribaculaceae, Rikenellaceae, and Lactobacillaceae levels, reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and Desulfovibrionaceae and Proteobacteria levels in obese mice. Oral administration of L. plantarum Y44 also enhanced the contents of propionic acid, butyric acid, butanoicacid-3-methyl, pentanoic acid and acetic acid in the feces of the obese mice. Correlation analysis of Spearman revealed a significant correlation between changes in intestinal microflora and obesity-related symptoms. L. plantarum Y44 ameliorated intestinal inflammation and lipid metabolism disorders by modulating gut microbiota.
The protective mechanism of Lactobacillus plantarum FZU3013 against non-alcoholic fatty liver associated with hyperlipidemia in mice fed a high-fat diet. Min Chen;Wei-Ling Guo;Qiu-Yi Li;Jia-Xin Xu;Ying-Jia Cao;Bin Liu;Xiao-Dan Yu;Ping-Fan Rao;Li Ni;Xu-Cong Lv. 2020. Food Funct. 11. PMID: 32226996

Lactobacillus plantarum FZU3013, a probiotic previously isolated from the traditional brewing process of Hongqu rice wine, may have the beneficial effect of improving the disorders of lipid metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the role of L. plantarum FZU3013 in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) associated with hyperlipidemia in mice fed a high-fat diet. The results indicated that L. plantarum FZU3013 intervention significantly reduced the HFD-induced body weight gain and the abnormal levels of serum total triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and inhibited the excessive accumulation of liver lipids. In addition, L. plantarum FZU3013 also promoted the excretion of bile acids through feces. Metagenomic and multivariate statistical analysis revealed that L. plantarum FZU3013 made significant structural changes in the intestinal microbiome of the mice fed with HFD, in particular by modulating the relative abundance of some function related microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS)-based liver metabolomics demonstrated that L. plantarum FZU3013 had a significant regulatory effect on the composition of liver metabolites in hyperlipidemic mice, especially on the levels of some important biomarkers involved in the pathways of glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid degradation, fatty acid elongation, glycerolipid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, etc. Moreover, L. plantarum FZU3013 regulated the mRNA expression levels of the genes responsible for liver lipid and cholesterol metabolism. L. plantarum FZU3013 intervention increased the hepatic mRNA levels of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and the bile salt export pump (BSEP), suggesting enhanced bile acid synthesis and excretion from the liver. These findings present new evidence supporting that L. plantarum FZU3013 has the potential to improve lipid metabolism disorders through modulating specific intestinal microbial phylotypes and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism related genes, therefore it could be used as a potential functional food for the prevention of NAFL and hyperlipidemia.
Protective effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains in hyperlipidemic mice. Li-Xin Wang;Kai Liu;Da-Wei Gao;Ji-Kui Hao. 2013. World J Gastroenterol. 19. PMID: 23716997

AIM: To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) CAI6 and L. plantarum SC4 on hyperlipidemic mice. METHODS: Male Kunming mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 28 d to construct hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic mice and normal mice were assigned to 3 groups which were separately treated with L. plantarum CAI6, L. plantarum SC4, and physiological saline through oral gavage for 28 d. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured by commercially available enzyme kits. FACS Calibur flow cytometry was used to examine hepatic and renal nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. The morphology of livers was checked by hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscope observation. RESULTS: Compared with normal mice, hyperlipidemic mice possessed significantly higher TC (3.50 ± 0.43 vs 2.89 ± 0.36, P < 0.01), TG (1.76 ± 0.07 vs 1.10 ± 0.16, P < 0.01), and LDL-C (1.72 ± 0.20 vs 0.82 ± 0.10, P< 0.01) levels, resulting in an increase of atherogenic index (AI) (2.34 ± 1.60 vs 0.93 ± 0.55, P < 0.05) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (1.43 ± 0.12 vs 0.51 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). After treatment with L. plantarum CAI6/L. plantarum SC4, TG (1.43 ± 0.27/1.54 ± 0.10 vs 1.76 ± 0.07, P < 0.01/P < 0.05) and LDL-C (1.42 ± 0.07/1.47 ± 0.12 vs 1.72 ± 0.20, P < 0.01/P < 0.01) in hyperlipidemic mice significantly decreased. In addition, TC, HDL-C, AI, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were all positively changed. Meanwhile, the treatment markedly alleviated hepatic steatosis and significantly stimulated Nrf2 expression (73.79 ± 0.80/72.96 ± 1.22 vs 54.94 ± 1.84, P < 0.01/P < 0.01) in hepatocytes of hyperlipidemic mice. CONCLUSION: L. plantarum CAI6 and L. plantarum SC4 may protect against cardiovascular disease by lipid metabolism regulation and Nrf2-induced antioxidative defense in hyperlipidemic mice.
The effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains on rat lipid metabolism receiving a high fat diet. Rastislav Salaj;Jana Stofilová;Alena Soltesová;Zdenka Hertelyová;Emília Hijová;Izabela Bertková;Ladislav Strojný;Peter Kružliak;Alojz Bomba. 2014. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013. PMID: 24470789

The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance.
Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo. Freddy J Troost;Peter van Baarlen;Patrick Lindsey;Andrea Kodde;Willem M de Vos;Michiel Kleerebezem;Robert-Jan M Brummer. 2008. BMC Genomics. 9. PMID: 18681965

BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. RESULTS: One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine.
Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529 in hypercholesterolaemic adults. Mari C Fuentes;Teresa Lajo;Juan M Carrión;Jordi Cuñé. 2012. Br J Nutr. 109. PMID: 23017585

Previous studies have indicated that supplementation with probiotic bacteria may improve lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of a mixture of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (CECT 7527, CECT 7528 and CECT 7529) on cholesterol-lowering efficacy in hypercholesterolaemic patients. A total of sixty volunteers (thirty participants in the placebo group and thirty counterparts in the L. plantarum group), aged 18–65 years old, participated in a controlled, randomised, double-blind trial. The study group received one capsule daily containing 1·2 × 10(9) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus strains in a unique dose; the placebo group consumed the same product without bacteria for 12 weeks. A significant reduction of 13·6 % in plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels was observed after 12 weeks of consumption in the L. plantarum group when compared with the placebo group. The lipidic outcomes were also analysed based on TC values at baseline: low initial values (LIV, 2000-2500 mg/l) v. high initial values (HIV, 2510–3000 mg/l). In the HIV group, the L. plantarum treatment showed a reduction after 12 weeks of consumption compared with the placebo group in TC, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and oxidised LDL-C (17·4, 17·6 and 15·6 %, respectively). In the LIV, the L. plantarum treatment only showed a reduction after 12 weeks of consumption when compared with the placebo group in TC (9·4 %). The present results showed that the biofunctionality of L. plantarum (CECT 7527, CECT 7528 and CECT 7529) is proportional to the cardiovascular risk of the patient, having a better effect in patients with higher levels of cholesterol.
Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 improves liver function, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in rats with high fat diet induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Chuan Li;Shao-Ping Nie;Ke-Xue Zhu;Qiao Ding;Chang Li;Tao Xiong;Ming-Yong Xie. 2014. Food Funct. 5. PMID: 25317840

The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on liver function, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in rats with high fat diet induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was studied. The rats were divided into four groups: the normal diet (ND) group; the high fat diet (HFD) group; and HFD plus L. plantarum NCU116 as two doses (NCU116-L, 10(8) CFU mL(-1); NCU116-H, 10(9) CFU mL(-1)) groups. Treatment of L. plantarum NCU116 for 5 weeks was found to restore liver function and oxidative stress in rats with NAFLD, and decrease the levels of fat accumulation in the liver. In addition, the bacterium significantly reduced endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines, and regulated bacterial flora in the colon and the expression of lipid metabolism in the liver. These results suggest that possible underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effect of L. plantarum NCU116 on NAFLD may include two pathways of downregulating lipogenesis and upregulating lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation related gene expression.
Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 isolated from Tibet kefir on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed on high-cholesterol diet. Yanping Wang;Nv Xu;Aodeng Xi;Zaheer Ahmed;Bin Zhang;Xiaojia Bai. 2009. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 84. PMID: 19444443

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2, an isolate from Chinese traditional Tibet kefir, on cholesterol-lowering and microflora of rat in vivo. Rats were fed on cholesterol-enriched experimental diet, supplemented with lyophilized L. plantarum MA2 powder, with a dose of 10(11) cells/day per mice. The results showed that L. plantarum MA2 feeding significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides level, while there was no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, liver total cholesterol and triglycerides was also decreased. However, fecal cholesterol and triglycerides was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. Also, L. plantarum MA2 increased the population of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the fecal, but it did not change the number of Escherichia coli as compared to control. Moreover, pH, moisture, and organic acids in the fecal were also measured. The present results indicate the probiotic potential of the L. plantarum MA2 strain in hypocholesterolemic effect and also increasing the probiotic count in the intestine.
Lactobacillus plantarum OLL2712 regulates glucose metabolism in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Tohru Sakai;Tomoyo Taki;Akiko Nakamoto;Emi Shuto;Rie Tsutsumi;Takayuki Toshimitsu;Seiya Makino;Shuuji Ikegami. 2013. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 59. PMID: 23727645

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum OLL2712 (L. plantarum OLL2712) on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Mice that had been administered 10(9) cfu heat-killed L. plantarum OLL2712 for 12 wk showed significant reduction of blood glucose levels in response to insulin. Furthermore, mRNA expression of interleukin-1β in adipose tissue and serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids in mice administered L. plantarum OLL2712 were significantly lower than those in control mice. These results indicate that L. plantarum OLL2712 regulates glucose metabolism.
Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on cardiovascular disease risk factors in smokers. Marek Naruszewicz;Marie-Louise Johansson;Danuta Zapolska-Downar;Hanna Bukowska. 2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 76. PMID: 12450890

BACKGROUND: The short-chain fatty acids formed in the human colon by the bacterial fermentation of fiber may have an antiinflammatory effect, may reduce insulin production, and may improve lipid metabolism. We previously showed in hypercholesterolemic patients that supplementation with the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 299v significantly lowers concentrations of LDL cholesterol and fibrinogen. OBJECTIVE: We determined the influence of a functional food product containing L. plantarum 299v on lipid profiles, inflammatory markers, and monocyte function in heavy smokers. DESIGN: Thirty-six healthy volunteers (18 women and 18 men) aged 35-45 y participated in a controlled, randomized, double-blind trial. The experimental group drank 400 mL/d of a rose-hip drink containing L. plantarum 299v (5 x 10(7) colony-forming units/mL); the control group consumed the same volume of product without bacteria. The experiment lasted 6 wk and entailed no changes in lifestyle. RESULTS: Significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (P < 0.000), leptin (P < 0.000), and fibrinogen (P < 0.001) were recorded in the experimental group. No such changes were observed in the control group. Decreases in F(2)-isoprostanes (37%) and interleukin 6 (42%) were also noted in the experimental group in comparison with baseline. Monocytes isolated from subjects treated with L. plantarum showed significantly reduced adhesion (P < 0.001) to native and stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: L. plantarum administration leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors and could be useful as a protective agent in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis in smokers.
Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Ning Xie;Yi Cui;Ya-Ni Yin;Xin Zhao;Jun-Wen Yang;Zheng-Gen Wang;Nian Fu;Yong Tang;Xue-Hong Wang;Xiao-Wei Liu;Chun-Lian Wang;Fang-Gen Lu. 2011. BMC Complement Altern Med. 11. PMID: 21722398

BACKGROUND: The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. METHODS: Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. RESULTS: Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p < 0.05), with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver lipid deposition were significantly decreased in the LAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Accordingly, both fecal cholesterol and bile acids levels were significantly increased after LAB administration (p < 0.05). Intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism.
[Cholesterol-degrading in mice by Lactobacillus plantarum LpT1 and LpT2 in vivo]. Ping Yu;Xiaohui Wang. 2012. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 52. PMID: 22489470

OBJECTIVE: To explore the cholesterol-degrading in mice by Lactobacillus plantarum LpT1 and LpT2 in vivo. METHODS: The hypercholesterolemia mice were randomly classified into 4 groups: A, B, C and D and fed with strain LpT1, LpT2, lovastatin and distilled water, respectively, and then TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and AI were determined. The tissue slice of liver was made and observed by transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: The hypercholesterolemia mice model was successfully constructed after feeding the hypercholesterol forage for 7 days. Lactobacillus plantarum LpT1 and the positive control lovastatin could significantly degrade the total cholesterol content (p<0.01) after 28 days, higher than Lactobacillus plantarum LpT2 (p<0.05). However, the negative control water could not degrade it. The transmission electron microscope result showed that the strains could effectively regulate the lipid metabolism to develop towards the regular trend after they were absorbed into the intestines. CONCLUSION: The results further laid foundation for studying the cholesterol-degrading mechanism by Lactobacillus plantarum in vivo.
Carrot juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 ameliorates type 2 diabetes in rats. Chuan Li;Qiao Ding;Shao-Ping Nie;Yan-Song Zhang;Tao Xiong;Ming-Yong Xie. 2014. J Agric Food Chem. 62. PMID: 25341087

The effect of carrot juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on high-fat and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes in rats was studied. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: non-diabetes mellitus (NDM), untreated diabetes mellitus (DM), DM plus L. plantarum NCU116 (NCU), DM plus fermented carrot juice with L. plantarum NCU116 (FCJ), and DM plus non-fermented carrot juice (NFCJ). Treatments of NCU and FCJ for 5 weeks were found to favorably regulate blood glucose, hormones, and lipid metabolism in the diabetic rats, accompanied by an increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the colon. In addition, NCU and FCJ had restored the antioxidant capacity and morphology of the pancreas and kidney and upregulated mRNA of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). These results have for the first time demonstrated that L. plantarum NCU116 and the fermented carrot juice had the potential ability to ameliorate type 2 diabetes in rats.
Fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 changes serum metabolomic profiles in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Jiayan Zhang;Xiang Xiao;Ying Dong;Xinghua Zhou. 2018. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 70. PMID: 30246576

We have previously reported an aqueous extract of fermented barley with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) has more efficient anti-obesity effect compared with that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To further explore associated effects of LFBE on body weight and body fat distribution, and lipid profiles related metabolic outcomes, serum metabolites were analysed using LC-MS-MS and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Obese and lean groups were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plot and major metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as lipid metabolites (fatty acids), lipid metabolism intermediates (choline, betaine, carnitine and butyryl-carnitine), amino acids and citric acid. A high-fat diet increased lipid metabolites and decreased lipid metabolism intermediates, indicating that abnormal lipid metabolism induced by a high-fat diet resulted in fat accumulation via decreased β-oxidation. But LFBE can inhibit fat accumulation by reducing lipid metabolites and increasing lipid metabolism intermediates. Furthermore, the level changes of these metabolites can be used to assess the risk of obesity and the therapeutic effect of obesity management.
Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PMO 08 Alone and Combined with Chia Seeds on Metabolic Syndrome and Parameters Related to Gut Health in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Young Joo Oh;Hee Jung Kim;Tae Seok Kim;Ik Hyun Yeo;Guen Eog Ji. 2019. J Med Food. 22. PMID: 31747330

This study researched the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PMO 08 alone and combined with chia seeds on metabolic syndrome and parameters related to microbiota modulation and intestinal barrier integrity in obese mice fed high-fat diets (HFDs; 45% kcal fat). Male C57BL/6J mice were acclimated for a period of 2 weeks and then randomly separated into five groups depending on whether they received a normal diet (ND group), an HFD (HFD group), an HFD with L. plantarum (PMO group), an HFD with L. plantarum combined with chia seeds (PMOChia group), or an HFD with chia seeds (Chia group). Serum lipid profiles and related markers (cholesterol metabolism-related gene expression) were measured. Intestinal barrier integrity was assessed by measuring occludin mRNA expression of tight junction proteins. Mucosal bacteria were checked with quantitative reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). After 16 weeks of feeding, the PMO group showed significantly lower serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, atherogenic index, and cardiac risk factors compared to the HFD group. Moreover, the hepatic mRNA expression of SREBP2 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 2), a protein related to cholesterol metabolism, was significantly downregulated in the PMO group. We also found a positive synergistic effect in the PMOChia group, as manifested by the hepatic mRNA expression of hepatic CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase), strengthening of the gut barrier function, and the promotion of more L. plantarum in the colonic mucosa than in either the HFD or PMO group. In conclusion, our results indicate that PMO 08 may protect against metabolic syndrome by exerting effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism. Although the effects of chia seeds alone remain uncertain based on this experiment, its combination with PMO 08 was demonstrated to improve multiple beneficial effects of PMO 08 in obese mice fed HFD, which is a promising possibility for future research.
Effects of skim milk fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum WW on the constitutions of rats fed a high-fat diet. Yang Li;Junrui Wu;ChengXu Cao;XinYuan Zhu;XueTing Sun;Rina Wu. 2020. J Dairy Sci. 103. PMID: 32278555

This study investigated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum WW-fermented skim milk (FSM) on the physiques of rats fed a high-fat diet and the mechanism of lipid lowering. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal diet group (A), a high-fat diet group (B), a skim milk diet group (C), and an L. plantarum WW FSM diet group (D). After 12-wk feeding, we found that treatment with L. plantarum WW FSM could significantly alleviate symptoms in the pathological group. Meanwhile, high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that L. plantarum WW FSM also had a certain regulatory effect on the intestinal microorganisms in rats, which can increase the number of lactic acid bacteria and Bacteroides in the intestine. More importantly, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the probiotic was also involved in the expression of genes related to fat metabolism, especially the PPARB and CEBPB genes. Our study supports the hypothesis that the WW strain of L. plantarum could be a potential probiotic to be used in functional foods to alter lipid metabolism and reduce cholesterol levels.
Green tea powder and Lactobacillus plantarum affect gut microbiota, lipid metabolism and inflammation in high-fat fed C57BL/6J mice. Ulrika Axling;Crister Olsson;Jie Xu;Céline Fernandez;Sara Larsson;Kristoffer Ström;Siv Ahrné;Cecilia Holm;Göran Molin;Karin Berger. 2012. Nutr Metab (Lond). 9. PMID: 23181558

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, ectopic lipid accumulation and low-grade inflammation. A dysfunctional gut microbiota has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of the disease. Green tea is rich in polyphenols and has previously been shown to exert beneficial metabolic effects. Lactobacillus plantarum has the ability to metabolize phenolic acids. The health promoting effect of whole green tea powder as a prebiotic compound has not been thoroughly investigated previously. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without a supplement of 4% green tea powder (GT), and offered drinking water supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 (Lp) or the combination of both (Lp + GT) for 22 weeks. Parameters related to obesity, glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism, hepatic steatosis and inflammation were examined. Small intestinal tissue and caecal content were collected for bacterial analysis. RESULTS: Mice in the Lp + GT group had significantly more Lactobacillus and higher diversity of bacteria in the intestine compared to both mice in the control and the GT group. Green tea strongly reduced the body fat content and hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol accumulation. The reduction was negatively correlated to the amount of Akkermansia and/or the total amount of bacteria in the small intestine. Markers of inflammation were reduced in the Lp + GT group compared to control. PLS analysis of correlations between the microbiota and the metabolic variables of the individual mice showed that relatively few components of the microbiota had high impact on the correlation model. CONCLUSIONS: Green tea powder in combination with a single strain of Lactobacillus plantarum was able to promote growth of Lactobacillus in the intestine and to attenuate high fat diet-induced inflammation. In addition, a component of the microbiota, Akkermansia, correlated negatively with several metabolic parameters known to be risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes.
Effects of NS Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Xu Hu;Tao Wang;Wei Li;Feng Jin;Li Wang. 2013. Lipids Health Dis. 12. PMID: 23656797

BACKGROUND: Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. METHODS: Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. RESULTS: Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression levels of liver enzymes related to cholesterol metabolism, including the down regulation of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and the upregulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). CONCLUSION: This study suggested that the two NS lactobacillus strains may affect lipid metabolism and have cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.
Comparative proteomic analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells of Lactobacillus plantarum DB200. Maria De Angelis;Sonya Siragusa;Daniela Campanella;Raffaella Di Cagno;Marco Gobbetti. 2015. Proteomics. 15. PMID: 25728239

This study investigated the relative abundance of extracellular and cell wall associated proteins (exoproteome), cytoplasmic proteins (proteome), and related phenotypic traits of Lactobacillus plantarum grown under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Lactobacillus plantarum DB200 was preliminarily selected due to its ability to form biofilms and to adhere to Caco2 cells. As shown by fluorescence microscope analysis, biofilm cells became longer and autoaggregated at higher levels than planktonic cells. The molar ratio between glucose consumed and lactate synthesised was markedly decreased under biofilm compared to planktonic conditions. DIGE analysis showed a differential exoproteome (115 protein spots) and proteome (44) between planktonic and biofilm L. plantarum DB200 cells. Proteins up- or downregulated by at least twofold (p < 0.05) were found to belong mainly to the following functional categories: cell wall and catabolic process, cell cycle and adhesion, transport, glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, exopolysaccharide metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolisms, fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, purine and nucleotide metabolism, stress response, oxidation/reduction process, and energy metabolism. Many of the above proteins showed moonlighting behavior. In accordance with the high expression levels of stress proteins (e.g., DnaK, GroEL, ClpP, GroES, and catalase), biofilm cells demonstrated enhanced survival under conditions of environmental stress.
Daily intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 improves inflammation and lipid metabolism in overweight healthy adults: a randomized-controlled trial. Yusuke Tanaka;Yoshitaka Hirose;Yoshihiro Yamamoto;Yasunobu Yoshikai;Shinji Murosaki. 2019. Eur J Nutr. . PMID: 31620886

PURPOSE: The effects of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 (HK L-137) on inflammation and lipid metabolism were investigated in overweight volunteers. METHODS: One hundred healthy subjects with a body mass index from 23.0 to 29.9 (51 men and 49 women; mean age: 41.4 years) were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily administration of a tablet containing HK L-137 (10 mg) or a placebo tablet for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected every 4 weeks to measure biomarkers of lipid metabolism and inflammatory mediators. RESULTS: The percent change of concanavalin A-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was significantly larger in the HK L-137 group than in the control group, similar to previous studies. The decreases of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase over time were significantly larger in the HK L-137 group than in the control group, as were the decreases of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the leukocyte count at one time point. These effects of HK L-137 were stronger in the subjects with higher C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that daily intake of HK L-137 can improve inflammation and lipid metabolism in subjects at risk of inflammation.
Modulation of Mucosal Immune Response, Tolerance, and Proliferation in Mice Colonized by the Mucin-Degrader Akkermansia muciniphila. Muriel Derrien;Peter Van Baarlen;Guido Hooiveld;Elisabeth Norin;Michael Müller;Willem M de Vos. 2011. Front Microbiol. 2. PMID: 21904534

Epithelial cells of the mammalian intestine are covered with a mucus layer that prevents direct contact with intestinal microbes but also constitutes a substrate for mucus-degrading bacteria. To study the effect of mucus degradation on the host response, germ-free mice were colonized with Akkermansia muciniphila. This anaerobic bacterium belonging to the Verrucomicrobia is specialized in the degradation of mucin, the glycoprotein present in mucus, and found in high numbers in the intestinal tract of human and other mammalian species. Efficient colonization of A. muciniphila was observed with highest numbers in the cecum, where most mucin is produced. In contrast, following colonization by Lactobacillus plantarum, a facultative anaerobe belonging to the Firmicutes that ferments carbohydrates, similar cell-numbers were found at all intestinal sites. Whereas A. muciniphila was located closely associated with the intestinal cells, L. plantarum was exclusively found in the lumen. The global transcriptional host response was determined in intestinal biopsies and revealed a consistent, site-specific, and unique modulation of about 750 genes in mice colonized by A. muciniphila and over 1500 genes after colonization by L. plantarum. Pathway reconstructions showed that colonization by A. muciniphila altered mucosal gene expression profiles toward increased expression of genes involved in immune responses and cell fate determination, while colonization by L. plantarum led to up-regulation of lipid metabolism. These indicate that the colonizers induce host responses that are specific per intestinal location. In conclusion, we propose that A. muciniphila modulates pathways involved in establishing homeostasis for basal metabolism and immune tolerance toward commensal microbiota.
Fermentation of soy milk via Lactobacillus plantarum improves dysregulated lipid metabolism in rats on a high cholesterol diet. Yunhye Kim;Sun Yoon;Sun Bok Lee;Hye Won Han;Hayoun Oh;Wu Joo Lee;Seung-Min Lee. 2014. PLoS One. 9. PMID: 24520358

We aimed to investigate whether in vitro fermentation of soy with L. plantarum could promote its beneficial effects on lipids at the molecular and physiological levels. Rats were fed an AIN76A diet containing 50% sucrose (w/w) (CTRL), a modified AIN76A diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) cholesterol (CHOL), or a CHOL diet where 20% casein was replaced with soy milk (SOY) or fermented soy milk (FSOY). Dietary isoflavone profiles, serum lipids, hepatic and fecal cholesterol, and tissue gene expression were examined. The FSOY diet had more aglycones than did the SOY diet. Both the SOY and FSOY groups had lower hepatic cholesterol and serum triglyceride (TG) than did the CHOL group. Only FSOY reduced hepatic TG and serum free fatty acids and increased serum HDL-CHOL and fecal cholesterol. Compared to CHOL, FSOY lowered levels of the nuclear forms of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 and expression of their target genes, including FAS, SCD1, LDLR, and HMGCR. On the other hand, FSOY elevated adipose expression levels of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein uptake (ApoE, VLDLR, and Lrp1), fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, CPT1α, LCAD, CYP4A1, UCP2, and UCP3), HDL-biogenesis (ABCA1, ApoA1, and LXRα), and adiponectin signaling (AdipoQ, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2), as well as levels of phosphorylated AMPK and ACC. SOY conferred a similar expression profile in both liver and adipose tissues but failed to reach statistical significance in many of the genes tested, unlike FSOY. Our data indicate that fermentation may be a way to enhance the beneficial effects of soy on lipid metabolism, in part via promoting a reduction of SREBP-dependent cholesterol and TG synthesis in the liver, and enhancing adiponectin signaling and PPARα-induced expression of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid oxidation, and reverse cholesterol transport in adipose tissues.
Cholesterol-lowering potentials of Lactobacillus strain overexpression of bile salt hydrolase on high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice. Guangqiang Wang;Wenli Huang;Yongjun Xia;Zhiqiang Xiong;Lianzhong Ai. 2019. Food Funct. 10. PMID: 30839966

Hypercholesterolemia is closely associated with cardiovascular disease. Supplementation with probiotics has been shown to contribute to improving lipid metabolism. The probiotic mechanisms of cholesterol reduction are complicated and remain unclear. One of the potential probiotic mechanisms for cholesterol reduction is the deconjugation of bile salts. We previously found a high bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity of Lactobacillus casei pWQH01 (overexpression of bsh1) and Lactobacillus plantarum AR113, but found no BSH activity for Lactobacillus casei LC2W in vitro. Therefore, we decided to investigate whether the high BSH activity of L. plantarum AR113 and L. casei pWQH01 could exert a cholesterol-reducing effect in vivo. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet (HCD) group, AR113 and pWQH01 groups had a significantly lower body weight (BW), serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and atherogenic index (AI), whereas the LC2W group had a poor capability to mitigate the blood lipid levels in the hypercholesterolemic mice. In addition, the AR113 and pWQH01 groups decreased the hepatic levels of TC and LDL-C and improved hepatic steatosis compared with the HCD group. To explore their cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of action, we determined the expression levels of these genes on the cholesterol metabolic pathways. AR113 and pWQH01 groups downregulated the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) genes, but upregulated the expression of the cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene in the liver. Simultaneously, the expression of cholesterol liver X receptor (LXR) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) genes was upregulated in the liver. These results indicated that L. plantarum AR113 and L. casei pWQH01 could inhibit the cholesterol absorption and accelerate the cholesterol transportation. Taken together, these findings suggest that Lactobacillus strain overexpression of bile salt hydrolase has beneficial effects against hypercholesterolemia by reducing cholesterol absorption and increasing cholesterol catabolism.
Antihyperlipidaemic effect of microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 on hyperlipidaemic rats. Caiqing Yao;Wenjing Tian;Jiaojiao Song;Junguo Wang. 2019. J Sci Food Agric. 100. PMID: 31849068

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 (hereafter LIP-1) has an obvious hypolipidemic effect, and microencapsulated probiotics can ensure the strains live through the gastrointestinal tract. Although there has been much research on both preparation and assessment methods for probiotics microcapsules, most assessments were made in vitro and few were validated in vivo. In this study, the protective effect of microencapsulation and the possible hypolipidemic mechanisms of probiotic LIP-1 were evaluated in rats. Treatments included rats fed on a normal diet, a high-fat diet, and a high-fat diet with an intragastric supplement of either non-microencapsulated LIP-1 cells (NME LIP-1) or microencapsulated LIP-1 (ME LIP-1). Lipid metabolism indicators were measured during the experiment and following euthanasia. RESULTS: Microencapsulation increased survival and colonization of LIP-1 in the colon. ME LIP-1 was superior to NME LIP-1 in reducing cholesterol. The mechanisms behind the hypolipidemic effect exerted by LIP-1 are possibly due to promoting the excretion of cholesterol, improving antioxygenic potentials, enhancing recovery from the injury in the liver, cardiovascular intima and intestinal mucosa, promoting the generation of short-chain fatty acids, and improving lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that microencapsulation provides effective protection of LIP-1 in the digestive system and the role of LIP-1 in the prevention and cure of hyperlipidaemia, providing theoretical support for probiotics to enter clinical applications. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
Probiotic Mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Improves Lipid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota Structure in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice. Huizhen Li;Fei Liu;Jingjing Lu;Jialu Shi;Jiaqi Guan;Fenfen Yan;Bailiang Li;Guicheng Huo. 2020. Front Microbiol. 11. PMID: 32273874

The global prevalence of obesity is rising year by year, which has become a public health problem worldwide. In recent years, animal studies and clinical studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria possess an anti-obesity effect. In our previous study, mixed lactobacilli (Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0344 and Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0386) exhibited anti-obesity effects in vivo by significantly reducing body weight gain, Lee's index and body fat rate; however, its underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the possible mechanisms for the inhibitory effect of mixed lactobacilli on obesity. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups including control group (Control), high fat diet group (HFD) and mixed lactobacilli group (MX), and fed daily for eight consecutive weeks. The results showed that mixed lactobacilli supplementation significantly improved blood lipid levels and liver function, and alleviated liver oxidative stress. Moreover, the mixed lactobacilli supplementation significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in the liver and regulated lipid metabolism in epididymal fat pads. Notably, the mixed lactobacilli treatment modulated the gut microbiota, resulting in a significant increase in acetic acid and butyric acid. Additionally, Spearman's correlation analysis found that several specific genera were significantly correlated with obesity-related indicators. These results indicated that the mixed lactobacilli supplementation could manipulate the gut microbiota and its metabolites (acetic acid and butyric acid), resulting in reduced liver lipid accumulation and improved lipid metabolism of adipose tissue, which inhibited obesity.
The inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 cell extract on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells. Do-Young Park;Young-Tae Ahn;Chul-Sung Huh;Seon-Min Jeon;Myung-Sook Choi. 2011. J Med Food. 14. PMID: 21554138

Some probiotics and their cell components are known to modulate lipid metabolism in vitro and/or in vivo. This study was carried out to investigate possible anti-adipogenic action of a probiotic cell extract, Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 cell extract (KY1032-CE), in vitro using 3T3-L1 cells. Lipid regulation in the cell culture system was assessed by AdipoRed assay and Oil red O staining of intracellular lipids and real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis of adipogenesis-related factors. AdipoRed assay revealed that KY1032-CE treatment significantly decreased lipid accumulation in maturing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Oil red O staining demonstrated that KY1032-CE reduced the number of lipid-containing rounded cells. KY1032-CE down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of four adipocyte-specific genes: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein. Accordingly, these results indicate that KY1032-CE can reduce fat mass by modulating adipogenesis in maturing preadipocytes. Further studies are needed to elucidate its mode of actions in efficacy tests of KY1032-CE in vivo.
Lactobacillus plantarum LG42 isolated from gajami sik-hae inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Jeong-Eun Park;Suk-Heung Oh;Youn-Soo Cha. 2013. Biomed Res Int. 2013. PMID: 23555088

We investigated whether lactic acid bacteria isolated from gajami sik-hae (GLAB) are capable of reducing the intracellular lipid accumulation by downregulating the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The GLAB, Lactobacillus plantarum LG42, significantly decreased the intracellular triglyceride storage and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α involved in adipogenesis was markedly decreased by the GLAB treatment. Moreover, the GLAB also decreased the expression level of adipogenic markers like adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), leptin, GPDH, and fatty acid translocase (CD36) significantly. These results suggest that the GLAB inhibits lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocyte through downregulating the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and other specific genes involved in lipid metabolism.
Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529: probiotic candidates to reduce cholesterol levels. Montserrat Bosch;Mari C Fuentes;Sergi Audivert;Miquel A Bonachera;Sara Peiró;Jordi Cuñé. 2013. J Sci Food Agric. 94. PMID: 24186773

BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolaemia plays a key role in the development and progression of coronary artery disease. There are numerous drugs available to treat this condition but they are often expensive and can have unwanted side effects. Therefore, a screening of lactic acid bacteria to select candidate probiotic strains to reduce cholesterol levels was carried out. Three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529) were selected as potential probiotics to reduce cholesterol levels after conducting several in vitro tests for demonstrating the functionalities of the strains according to international guidelines. RESULTS: The three strains showed a high ability to survive under gastrointestinal tract conditions and to adhere to intestinal cells. Regarding lipid metabolism, the strains showed a great production of bile salt hydrolase, especially when combined. Moreover, the strains assimilated cholesterol directly from the medium. Part of the cholesterol present in the medium was removed via binding onto the bacterial cellular surface. Finally, the three strains, especially CECT 7529, produce large quantities of propionic and butyric acids. CONCLUSION: Combined, these characteristics suggest that these strains could be excellent candidates for reducing high blood cholesterol levels.
Supplementation with two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032, reduces fasting triglycerides and enhances apolipoprotein A-V levels in non-diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Hyeon Yeong Ahn;Minjoo Kim;Jey Sook Chae;Young-Tae Ahn;Jae-Hun Sim;Il-Dong Choi;Sang-Hyun Lee;Jong Ho Lee. 2015. Atherosclerosis. 241. PMID: 26117402

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have indicated that supplementation with probiotics might improve lipid metabolism. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with probiotic strains Lactobacillus curvatus (L. curvatus) HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KY1032 on triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein A-V (apo A-V) levels. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 128 non-diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Over a 12-week test period, the probiotic group consumed 2 g/day of a powdered supplement containing L. curvatus HY7601 and L. plantarum KY1032, whereas the placebo group consumed a powder lacking probiotics. RESULTS: After the treatment, the probiotic group showed an 18.3% (P < 0.001) reduction in TGs and increases of 21.1% (P = 0.001) and 15.6% (P < 0.001) in the apo A-V and LDL particle size, respectively. The probiotic group had a significant reduction in TGs (P = 0.040) and increases in the plasma apo A-V (P = 0.003) and LDL particle size (P < 0.001) compared with the placebo group. In the probiotic group, the reduction in the TG levels was negatively correlated with changes in the apo A-V and baseline TGs, regardless of the APOA5 -1131T > C genotype. CONCLUSION: The consumption of two probiotic strains for 12 weeks reduced TGs and increased the apo A-V and LDL particle size in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. This effect was more pronounced in subjects with higher levels of fasting TGs regardless of their APOA5 -1131T > C genotype.
Lactobacillus plantarum Strain Ln4 Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Changes in Hepatic mRNA Levels Associated with Glucose and Lipid Metabolism. Eunjung Lee;So-Ra Jung;So-Young Lee;Na-Kyoung Lee;Hyun-Dong Paik;Seong-Il Lim. 2018. Nutrients. 10. PMID: 29783731

The prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is rapidly becoming a severe global health problem. Recent reports have suggested that the alteration of the gut ecosystem through the consumption of probiotics and fermented foods, such as yogurt and Kimchi, can significantly impact obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related biomarkers. In this study, we screened over 400 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that were isolated from fermented foods to identify potent anti-obesogenic and diabetic probiotics in vitro. Of the strains tested, Lactobacillus plantarum Ln4 (Ln4), which was obtained from napa cabbage kimchi, significantly reduced lipid accumulation and stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oral administration of Ln4 reduced weight gain and epididymal fat mass in mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD). Total plasma triglyceride level was significantly lower in mice that were treated Ln4 as compared with mice fed HFD. The protein levels of adipokines such as C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins-3 (IGFBP-3), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) decreased in white adipose tissues of Ln4-treated mice. Furthermore, these mice exhibited a significant reduction of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the improvement of glucose tolerance (OGTT) and insulin response (ITT) following Ln4 administration. This was associated with changes in several hepatic gene expressions (increased mRNA levels of IRS2, Akt2, AMPK, LPL, and reduced CD36) that regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Taken together, these results indicate that in vitro and in vivo Ln4 treatment attenuates diet-induced obesity and T2D biomarkers, highlighting the potential of Ln4 as a therapeutic probiotic agent for metabolic disorders.
Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III alleviates the toxic effects of triclosan on zebrafish (Danio rerio) via gut microbiota modulation. Luxiu Zang;Yan Ma;Wenhao Huang;Yuhang Ling;Limei Sun;Xuedong Wang;Aibing Zeng;Randy A Dahlgren;Caihong Wang;Huili Wang. 2018. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 84. PMID: 30423455

The probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, plays an important role in modulating microbiota and alleviating intestinal metabolic disorders. Herein, we reported that Lactobacillus increases biodiversity of zebrafish gut flora, and attenuates toxic effects from chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure. Lactobacillus-feeding recovered the species and amount of microorganisms in the intestines of zebrafish, and inhibited toxin production by saprophytic bacterial growth. Abnormal physiological indexes and malonaldeyhde content resulting from TCS exposure were effectively alleviated. Additionally, lipid-metabolism disorders, such as increased triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, were attenuated by a probiotics diet. The number of CD4+ T cell lymphocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenal mucosa was decreased in zebrafish receiving a Lactobacillus diet compared to the TCS-exposed group, showing a consistent expression trend for six immune genes (NF-κB, IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme, TLR4α, IL-10) in the intestinal mucosa. Histopathological observations of intestines, spleen and kidney showed that TCS exposure produced severe damage to the morphology and structure of immune and metabolism-related organs. Lactobacillus was capable of mitigating this damage, but bile salt hydrolase, an active extract of Lactobacillus, was not an effective mitigation strategy. The Lactobacillus-induced decrease in the number of inflammatory cells confirmed its role in preventing inflammatory injury. Three behavioral tests (T-maze, bottom dwelling and social interaction) indicated that a probiotics diet improved zebrafish movement and learning/memory capacity, effectively alleviating anxiety behavior due to TCS exposure. These findings inform development of beneficial strategies to alleviate intestinal metabolic syndromes and neurodegenerative diseases resulting from exposure to environmental contaminants through modifying gut flora with a probiotics diet.
Anti-obesity Action of Fermented Barley Extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 and Associated MicroRNA Expression in High-fat Diet-induced Obese Rats. Jia Yan Zhang;Xiang Xiao;Ying Dong;Xing Hua Zhou. 2019. Biomed Environ Sci. 32. PMID: 31843045

OBJECTIVE: To further explore associated effects of Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) on obesity and lipid metabolism at the gene expression level, the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) was investigated in the liver of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats. METHODS: Three groups of animal models were established. Changes in miRNA expression in the liver of each group were analyzed by microarray and RT-qPCR, complemented by bioinformatics. Palmitateinduced hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were used as a model to validate the test. RESULTS: LFBE treatment groups and HFD groups were observed to be distinctly different with respect to rates of increase in body weight and body fat percentage and triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels in serum and liver. In addition, the LFBE group showed upregulation of ten miRNAs and downregulation of five miRNAs in the liver. Downregulation of miR-34a and miR-212 was observed in the livers of the LFBE group. Gene ontology and kyoto encyelopedia of geues and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that possible target genes of the deregulated miRNAs were significantly enriched in the adrenergic and HIF-1 signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that LFBE might regulate the expression of miRNAs in order to inhibit obesity and fatty liver.
Effect of inhibition of protein synthesis on lipid metabolism in Lactobacillus plantarum. L Y Arbogast;T O Henderson. 1975. J Bacteriol. 123. PMID: 1158852

In Lactobacillus plantarum 17-5, lipid synthesis appears to be correlated with protein synthesis. Inhibition of protein synthesis by chloramphenicol (50 mug/ml) caused the nearly simultaneous inhibition of incorporation of radioactive oleic acid into polar lipids before the cessation of growth. In addition, de novo fatty acid synthesis, as determined by the incorporation of radioactive acetate into cellular lipids, was also inhibited. Removal of the antibiotic resulted in the resumption of growth, protein synthesis, and polar lipid synthesis. Inhibition of protein synthesis by leucine deprivation also produced a marked reduction in the incorporation of radioactive oleic acid into the total polar lipids at about the same time that growth stopped (30 to 60 min after the removal of leucine). However, the different classes of lipids behaved differently. For example, the incorporation of oleic acid into cardiolipin was inhibited immediately upon removal of leucine from the cultures, whereas incorporation into phosphatidyl-glycerol was maintained at near normal rates for 60 min after the removal of leucine and then ceased. In contrast, the accumulation of radioactive oleic acid in a neutral lipid identified as diglyceride occurred to a much greater extent in leucine-deprived cultures than in control (+ leucine) cultures. Upon addition of leucine to leucine-deprived cultures, the rates of synthesis of phosphatidyl-glycerol and cardiolipin returned to normal; the amount of radioactivity in the diglyceride fraction decreased to normal levels concomitantly with increased phospholipid synthesis.
Probiotics L. plantarum and L. curvatus in combination alter hepatic lipid metabolism and suppress diet-induced obesity. Sae-Rom Yoo;Young-Jae Kim;Do-Young Park;Un-Ju Jung;Seon-Min Jeon;Young-Tae Ahn;Chul-Sung Huh;Robin McGregor;Myung Sook Choi. 2013. Obesity (Silver Spring). 21. PMID: 23512789

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of naturally derived probiotic strains individually or combination on a short-term diet-induced obesity model. DESIGN AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice (n = 50) were randomly divided into five groups, then fed a high-fat high-cholesterol diet (HFCD), HFCD and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 (PL, 10(10) cfu/day), HFCD and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 (CU, 10(10) cfu/day), HFCD and in combination with PL+CU (10(10) cfu/day), or a normal diet (ND) for 9 weeks. RESULTS: PL and CU showed distinct and shared metabolic activity against a panel of 50 carbohydrates. Fat accumulation in adipose tissue and liver was significantly reduced by probiotic strains CU or PL+CU. Probiotic strains CU or PL+CU reduced cholesterol in plasma and liver, while PL+CL had a synergistic effect on hepatic triglycerides. Probiotic strains PL+CU combination was more effective for inhibiting gene expressions of various fatty acid synthesis enzymes in the liver, concomitant with decreases in fatty acid oxidation-related enzyme activities and their gene expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-strain probiotics may prove more beneficial than single-strain probiotics to combat fat accumulation and metabolic alterations in diet-induced obesity.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition. Shigenobu Kishino;Michiki Takeuchi;Si-Bum Park;Akiko Hirata;Nahoko Kitamura;Jun Kunisawa;Hiroshi Kiyono;Ryo Iwamoto;Yosuke Isobe;Makoto Arita;Hiroyuki Arai;Kazumitsu Ueda;Jun Shima;Satomi Takahashi;Kenzo Yokozeki;Sakayu Shimizu;Jun Ogawa. 2013. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110. PMID: 24127592

In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition.
Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure. Katri Korpela;Annika Mutanen;Anne Salonen;Erkki Savilahti;Willem M de Vos;Mikko P Pakarinen. 2015. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 41. PMID: 25934046

BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. METHODS: We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent phylogenetic microarray analysis. The microbiota was related to histological liver injury, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and calprotectin, and disease characteristics. RESULTS: Overabundance of Lactobacilli, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was observed in IF, whereas bacteria related to Clostridium clusters III, IV, and XIVa along with overall diversity and richness were reduced. Patients were segregated into 3 subgroups based on dominating bacteria: Clostridium cluster XIVa, Proteobacteria, and bacteria related to Lactobacillus plantarum. In addition to liver steatosis and fibrosis, Proteobacteria were associated with prolonged current parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as liver and intestinal inflammation. Lactobacilli were related to advanced steatosis and fibrosis mostly after weaning off PN without associated inflammation. In multivariate permutational analysis of variance, liver steatosis, bowel length, PN calories, and antibiotic treatment best explained the microbiota variation among patients with IF. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal microbiota composition was associated with liver steatosis in IF and better predicted steatosis than duration of PN or length of the remaining intestine. Our results may be explained by a model in which steatosis is initiated during PN in response to proinflammatory lipopolysaccharides produced by Proteobacteria and progresses after weaning off PN, as the L plantarum group Lactobacilli becomes dominant and affects lipid metabolism by altering bile acid signaling.
Polysaccharides from fermented Momordica charantia ameliorate obesity in high-fat induced obese rats. Jia-Jia Wen;He Gao;Jie-Lun Hu;Qi-Xing Nie;Hai-Hong Chen;Tao Xiong;Shao-Ping Nie;Ming-Yong Xie. 2019. Food Funct. 10. PMID: 30628614

Momordica charantia (M. charantia) has been widely used to treat obesity due to its bioactive ingredients. This research aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effect of polysaccharides (FP) from fermented M. charantia with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on high-fat induced obese rats. We found that FP could effectively lower the body weight gain, Lee's index, insulin resistance and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in obese rats compared with polysaccharides from non-fermented M. charantia (NFP). FP treatments decreased the total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, leptin, whereas they elevated the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, significantly in the serum of obese rats. Furthermore, administrations of FP notably improved oxidative balance in obese rats. Lipidomics results indicated that 24 potential biomarkers have been identified in serum. Additionally, 21 lipids were considerably altered by FP and NFP intakes, such as fatty acyls, glycerolipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids and glycerophospholipids. The anti-obesity properties of FP were revealed via relieving insulin resistance and fat accumulation of obese rats, which was associated with the regulation of lipid metabolism. Overall, FP exerted more favourable impacts on the anti-obesity effect than NFP, which may be attributed to fermentation.
Gut microbial metabolites of linoleic acid are metabolized by accelerated peroxisomal β-oxidation in mammalian cells. Katsuya Morito;Ryota Shimizu;Nahoko Kitamura;Si-Bum Park;Shigenobu Kishino;Jun Ogawa;Tatsuya Fukuta;Kentaro Kogure;Tamotsu Tanaka. 2019. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 1864. PMID: 31351225

Microorganisms in animal gut produce unusual fatty acids from the ingested diet. Two types of hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs), 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA) and 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid (HYB), are linoleic acid (LA) metabolites produced by Lactobacillus plantarum. In this study, we investigated the metabolism of these HFAs in mammalian cells. When Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were cultured with HYA, approximately 50% of the supplemented HYA disappeared from the dish within 24 h. On the other hand, the amount of HYA that disappeared from the dish of peroxisome (PEX)-deficient CHO cells was lower than 20%. Significant amounts of C2- and C4-chain-shortened metabolites of HYA were detected in culture medium of HYA-supplemented CHO cells, but not in medium of PEX-deficient cells. These results suggested that peroxisomal β-oxidation is involved in the disappearance of HYA. The PEX-dependent disappearance was observed in the experiment with HYB, but not with LA. We also found that HYA treatment up-regulates peroxisomal β-oxidation activity of human gastric MKN74 cells and intestinal Caco-2 cells. These results indicate a possibility that HFAs produced from gut bacteria affect lipid metabolism of host via modulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation activity.
Effects of fermentation on structural characteristics and in vitro physiological activities of barley β-glucan. Xiang Xiao;Cui Tan;Xinjuan Sun;Yansheng Zhao;Jiayan Zhang;Ying Zhu;Juan Bai;Ying Dong;Xinghua Zhou. 2020. Carbohydr Polym. 231. PMID: 31888856

The effects of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 on the main structural changes of barley β-glucan and their in vitro activities were studied. Molecular characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, methylation, 1D and 2D-NMR analyses and scanning electron microscopy revealed that both (raw barley β-glucan) RBG and fermented barley β-glucan (FBG) are polysaccharides predominanted by β-(1→3) and β-(1→4) linked glucose. However, different molecular weight (decreasing from 1.13×105 D to 6.35×104 D), the ratio of the β-(1→3) residues to the β-(1→4) residues (ranging from 1:1.98-1:2.50 to 1:1.8-1:2.24) and microstructure features (transforming from a rod-like to sheet-like structure) were observed. Bioassay results showed that FBG exhibited improved inhibitory activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase, as well as the adsorption of cholesterol under acidic conditions compared to RBG. These results suggested that fermentation may enhance in vitro physiological activities of barley β-glucan, especially related to glucose and lipid metabolism.
Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 on Postprandial Lipid Levels and Intestinal Environment: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Trial. Ye Eun Park;Min Seo Kim;Kyung Won Shim;You-Il Kim;Jaeryang Chu;Byoung-Kook Kim;In Suk Choi;Ji Yeon Kim. 2020. Nutrients. 12. PMID: 31963808

Probiotics can improve the intestinal environment by enhancing beneficial bacteria to potentially regulate lipid levels; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 (LPQ180) on postprandial lipid metabolism and the intestinal microbiome environment from a clinical perspective. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted including 70 participants of both sexes, 20 years of age and older, with healthy blood triacylglyceride (TG) levels below 200 mg/dL. Treatment with LPQ180 for 12 weeks significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.042) and apolipoprotein (Apo)B-100 (p = 0.003) levels, and decreased postprandial maximum concentrations (Cmax) and areas under the curve (AUC) of TG, chylomicron TG, ApoB-48, and ApoB-100. LPQ180 treatment significantly decreased total indole and phenol levels (p = 0.019). In addition, there was a negative correlation between baseline microbiota abundance and lipid marker change, which was negatively correlated with metabolites. This study suggests that LPQ180 might be developed as a functional ingredient to help maintain healthy postprandial lipid levels through modulating gut environment.
Effects of Cabbage-Apple Juice Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum EM on Lipid Profile Improvement and Obesity Amelioration in Rats. Sihoon Park;Hee-Kyoung Son;Hae-Choon Chang;Jae-Joon Lee. 2020. Nutrients. 12. PMID: 32325640

This study aimed to investigate the potential of cabbage-apple juice, fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum EM isolated from kimchi, to protect against obesity and dyslipidemia that are induced by a high-fat diet in a rat model. Male rats were fed a modified AIN-93M high-fat diet (HFD), the same diet supplemented with non-fermented cabbage-apple juice, or the same diet supplemented with fermented cabbage-apple juice for eight weeks. In the HFD-fermented cabbage- apple juice administered groups the following parameters decreased: body weight, liver and white fat pad weights, serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, insulin, glucose and leptin levels, TG levels, while HDL-C and adiponectin levels in serum increased as compared with the HFD group. The HFD-fed rats that were supplemented with fermented cabbage-apple juice exhibited significantly lower fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and malic enzyme gene expression levels when compared to the exclusively HFD-fed rats. The anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects were marginally greater in the fermented juice administered group than in the non-fermented juice administered group. These results suggest that cabbage-apple juice-especially fermented cabbage-apple juice-might have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism dysfunction and obesity-related abnormalities. However, further studies are necessary for analyzing the biochemical regulatory mechanisms of fermented juice for obesity amelioration and lipid metabolic homeostasis.
A synbiotic consisting of Lactobacillus plantarum S58 and hull-less barley β-glucan ameliorates lipid accumulation in mice fed with a high-fat diet by activating AMPK signaling and modulating the gut microbiota. Tian Tang;Jiajia Song;Jian Li;Hongwei Wang;Yu Zhang;Huayi Suo. 2020. Carbohydr Polym. 243. PMID: 32532403

The synergistic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum S58 (LP.S58) and hull-less barley β-glucan (β-G) on lipid accumulation in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated. The body weight, serum lipid levels and lipid accumulation of adipose and liver tissues in the HFD-fed mice were inhibited after synergistic treatment with LP.S58 and β-G. In liver and adipose tissues, LP.S58 and β-G synergistically activated AMPK, reduced the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, FAS, SCD1 and LPL, and increased the expression of CPT-1 and HSL. The HFD-induced decreases in lipid metabolism-related hormones were reversed by LP.S58 and β-G. LP.S58 and β-G synergistically also increased the expression of colon tight junction proteins while suppressing systematic inflammation. LP.S58 and β-G ameliorated gut microbiological dysbiosis in HFD-fed mice. Correlations between serum parameters and gut microbiota were revealed. LP.S58 and β-G synergistically attenuated the HFD-induced lipid accumulation by activating AMPK signaling and regulating the gut microbiota.
The effects of Lactobacillus-fermented milk on lipid metabolism in hamsters fed on high-cholesterol diet. Chiu-Hsia Chiu;Tzu-Yu Lu;Yun-Yu Tseng;Tzu-Ming Pan. 2005. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 71. PMID: 16172889

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of local Lactobacillus strains (NTU 101 and 102) on cholesterol-lowering effects in vivo. Thirty male hamsters were housed, divided into five groups, and fed on a cholesterol diet (5 g/kg diet) to induce hypercholesterolemia. Milk fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101, Lactobacillus plantarum NTU 102, and Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 17010 was administrated for this study. After treatment with different fermented milk, blood was taken and liver was removed for the determination of lipoproteins, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria decreased (10(5)) in the control group; when hamsters were fed on fermented milk, the number of lactobacilli (10(7)-10(8)) and bifidobacteria (10(5)-10(7)) was increased. Serum and liver total cholesterol levels were significantly reduced by about 26.4, 23.5, and 30.1% and by about 17.7, 15.9, and 13.4% when hamsters were given fermented milk. However, serum HDL-C and LDL-C were also reduced. The results of this study showed that the hypocholesterolemic effect of local Lactobacillus strains was attributed to its ability to lower serum and liver total cholesterol levels. Thus, local Lactobacillus strains could significantly increase probiotic count.
Carbohydrate, peptide and lipid metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in sourdough. Michael G Gänzle;Nicoline Vermeulen;Rudi F Vogel. 2006. Food Microbiol. 24. PMID: 17008155

The metabolic pathways of lactic acid bacteria that influence bread quality are coupled to the central carbon flux by the availability of cofactors influencing the cellular and environmental redox potential. Homo- and heterofermentative metabolism differ fundamentally with respect to the requirement for regeneration of reduced cofactors, NADH or NADPH. The utilization of co-substrates such as oxygen or fructose as electron acceptors by obligate heterofermentative lactobacilli is coupled to an increased production of acetate in dough. Recently, several oxidoreductases involved in cofactor regeneration were characterized and glutathione and short-chain aldehydes derived from lipid oxidation were identified as substrates for cofactor regeneration by Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Based on the different metabolic requirements for cofactor regeneration, homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli exert divergent effects on redox-reactions in sourdough that influence bread quality beyond the formation of acetate. Proteolysis, followed by peptide or amino acid metabolism by LAB is one of the key routes of flavour formation in bread flavour, and enables the strain-specific formation of antifungal metabolites. Peptide metabolism as well as the metabolism of cysteine, arginine, and phenylalanine in Lactobacillus plantarum, L. sanfranciscensis, and Lactobacillus pontis is increasingly understood and these insights provide new opportunities for the directed application of sourdough LAB for improved bread quality.
New insertion sequence in Lactobacillus fructivorans strains isolated from spoiled sake. Yasuhiko Wada;Haruhiko Mizoguchi. 2007. J Biosci Bioeng. 103. PMID: 17609153

A genomic subtraction between Lactobacillus fructivorans ATCC 8288(T) and an alcoholophilic strain of L. fructivorans (ATCC 15435 strain H-1) was performed. Subtractive DNA fragments were identified to be parts of a 1468-bp insertion sequence, a few copies of which were present with in four alcoholophilic strains tested. The insertion sequence, which we named ISLfr1, seems to belong to the ISL3 family. For three alcoholophilic strains, primer walk sequencing revealed that ISLfr1 was inserted into the ORF, which showed homology to accC2 of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. accC2 in one strain seemed to be nonfunctional because of deletion and frameshift mutations, although ISLfr1 was not found in this gene. Although accC2 encodes acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which is essential for lipid metabolism, L. fructivorans was found to have a homolog of accC2. Nonfunctional accC2 might be involved in producing the unusually long acyl chains observed only in alcoholophilic L. fructivorans. From a food engineering standpoint, it appears that the concomitant PCR amplification of ISLfr1 and rDNA is useful for the specific detection of alcoholophilic L. fructivorans.
The obesity and fatty liver are reduced by plant-derived Pediococcus pentosaceus LP28 in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Xingrong Zhao;Fumiko Higashikawa;Masafumi Noda;Yusuke Kawamura;Yasuyuki Matoba;Takanori Kumagai;Masanori Sugiyama. 2012. PLoS One. 7. PMID: 22363472

We evaluated the effect of an oral administration of a plant-derived lactic acid bacterium, Pediococcus pentosaceus LP28 (LP28), on metabolic syndrome by using high fat diet-induced obese mice. The obese mice were divided into 2 groups and fed either a high fat or regular diet for 8 weeks. Each group was further divided into 3 groups, which took LP28, another plant-derived Lactobacillus plantarum SN13T (SN13T) or no lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The lean control mice were fed a regular diet without inducing obesity prior to the experiment. LP28 reduced body weight gain and liver lipid contents (triglyceride and cholesterol), in mice fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks (40%, 54%, and 70% less than those of the control group without LAB, and P = 0.018, P<0.001, and P = 0.021, respectively), whereas SN13T and the heat treated LP28 at 121°C for 15 min were ineffective. Abdominal visceral fat in the high fat diet mice fed with LP28 was also lower than that without LAB by 44%, although it was not significant but borderline (P = 0.076). The sizes of the adipocytes and the lipid droplets in the livers were obviously decreased. A real-time PCR analyses showed that lipid metabolism-related genes, such as CD36 (P = 0.013), SCD1 encoding stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (not significant but borderline, P = 0.066), and PPARγ encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (P = 0.039), were down-regulated by taking LP28 continuously, when compared with those of the control group. In conclusion, LP28 may be a useful LAB strain for the prevention and reduction of the metabolic syndrome.
Anti-atherosclerotic effect of traditional fermented cheese whey in atherosclerotic rabbits and identification of probiotics. Xin-Hua Nabi;Chun-Yan Ma;Tabusi Manaer;Mulalibieke Heizati;Baheti Wulazibieke;Latipa Aierken. 2016. BMC Complement Altern Med. 16. PMID: 27553960

BACKGROUND: Traditional fermented cheese whey (TFCW), containing probiotics, has been used both as a dairy food with ethnic flavor and a medicine for cardiovascular disease, especially regulating blood lipid among Kazakh. We therefore investigated anti-atherosclerotic effects of TFCW in atherosclerotic rabbits and identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in TFCW. METHODS: Atherosclerotic rabbits were induced by administration of atherosclerotic diet for 12 weeks and divided randomly into three groups and treated for 4 weeks with Simvastatin (20 mg/kg) or TFCW (25 mg/kg) and (50 mg/kg). In addition, a normal control group and an atherosclerotic group were used for comparison. All drugs were intragastrical administered once daily 10 mL/kg for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW), lipid profiles, C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were tested and theromatous plaques and the number of foam cells and infiltrating fibroblast cells in the thoracic aorta endothelium was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin stainin. LAB and yeasts were isolated and purified by conventional techniques and identified using morphological and biochemical properties as well as gene sequences analysis. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of treatment, high and low dose TFCW decreased serum TC, TG, LDLC, CRP, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (P < 0.05) compared to atherosclerotic group, and increased HDL-C (P < 0.05) compared to normal controls. Histological analysis showed TFCW reduced VCAM-1 expression and formation of atheromatous plaques on the aortic endothelium of atherosclerotic rabbits. CONCLUSION: Seven classes of LBA from two different genera including Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus kefianofaciens, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus Casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus kefiri and Lactococcus lactic as well as 2 classes of yeasts from two different genera including Saccharomyces unisporus and Issatchenkia orientalis were isolated and identified from TFCW. In summary, TFCW, containing 7 classes of LBA and 2 classes of yeasts, has significant anti-atherosclerotic potential in atherosclerotic rabbits and may modulate lipid metabolism and protect aorta in the atherosclerotic condition, which might be related to various probiotics acting through reducing the CRP, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels and protecting the aortic endothelium.
Differential effects of coconut versus soy oil on gut microbiota composition and predicted metabolic function in adult mice. Vania Patrone;Andrea Minuti;Michela Lizier;Francesco Miragoli;Franco Lucchini;Erminio Trevisi;Filippo Rossi;Maria Luisa Callegari. 2018. BMC Genomics. 19. PMID: 30404613

BACKGROUND: Animal studies show that high fat (HF) diet-induced gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity. Oil composition of high-fat diet affects metabolic inflammation differently with deleterious effects by saturated fat. The aim of the present study was to examine the diversity and metabolic capacity of the cecal bacterial community in C57BL/6 N mice administered two different diets, enriched respectively with coconut oil (HFC, high in saturated fat) or soy oil (HFS, high in polyunsaturated fat). The relative impact of each hypercaloric diet was evaluated after 2 and 8 weeks of feeding, and compared with that of a low-fat, control diet (LF). RESULTS: The HFC diet induced the same body weight gain and fat storage as the HFS diet, but produced higher plasma cholesterol levels after 8 weeks of treatment. At the same time point, the cecal microbiota of HFC diet-fed mice was characterized by an increased relative abundance of Allobaculum, Anaerofustis, F16, Lactobacillus reuteri and Deltaproteobacteria, and a decreased relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila compared to HFS mice. Comparison of cecal microbiota of high-fat fed mice versus control mice indicated major changes that were shared between the HFC and the HFS diet, including the increase in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lutispora, and Syntrophomonas, while some other shifts were specifically associated to either coconut or soy oil. Prediction of bacterial gene functions showed that the cecal microbiota of HFC mice was depleted of pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, xenobiotic degradation and metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides compared to mice on HFS diet. Correlation analysis revealed remarkable relationships between compositional changes in the cecal microbiota and alterations in the metabolic and transcriptomic phenotypes of high-fat fed mice. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights significant differences in cecal microbiota composition and predictive functions of mice consuming a diet enriched in coconut vs soy oil. The correlations established between specific bacterial taxa and various traits linked to host lipid metabolism and energy storage give insights into the role and functioning of the gut microbiota that may contribute to diet-induced metabolic disorders.
Fermented barley β-glucan regulates fat deposition in Caenorhabditis elegans. Xiang Xiao;Cui Tan;Xinjuan Sun;Yansheng Zhao;Jiayan Zhang;Ying Zhu;Juan Bai;Ying Dong;Xinghua Zhou. 2020. J Sci Food Agric. 100. PMID: 32166779

BACKGROUND: Barley contains a relatively high concentration of the mixed-linkage (1 → 3) (1 → 4) β-glucan, which has been reported to be a functional food with prebiotic potential. In the current study we compared the properties of two neutral barley β-glucans, obtained from raw barley: raw barley β-glucan (RBG) and Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1-fermented barley (FBG). RESULTS: Molecular characteristics revealed that the molecular weight of barley β-glucan decreased from 1.13 × 105 D to 6.35 × 104 D after fermentation. Fermentation also improved the water / oil holding capacity, solubility, and swelling capacity of barley β-glucan. Both RBG and FBG significantly improved the locomotive behavior of nematodes, thereby increasing their energy consumption and reducing fat deposition - the effect was more significant with FBG. These effects could potentially depend on nhr-49, TGF-daf-7 mediated pathways and so on, in which nhr-49 factor is particularly required. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that fermentation may enhance in vitro physiological activities of barley β-glucan, thereby altering the effects on the lipid metabolism in vivo. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.