B Cell-Intrinsic MyD88 Signaling Promotes Initial Cell Proliferation and Differentiation To Enhance the Germinal Center Response to a Virus-like Particle. Meijie Tian;Zhaolin Hua;Sheng Hong;Zhimin Zhang;Can Liu;Lin Lin;Jiaorong Chen;Wei Zhang;Xuyu Zhou;Fuping Zhang;Anthony L DeFranco;Baidong Hou. 2017. J Immunol. 200. PMID: 29282308

Although TLR signaling in B cells has been implicated in the germinal center (GC) responses during viral infections and autoimmune diseases, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Bacterial phage Qβ-derived virus-like particle (Qβ-VLP) contains TLR ligands, which can enhance Qβ-VLP-induced Ab response, including GC response, through TLR/MyD88 signaling in B cells. In this study, by examining Ag-specific B cell response to Qβ-VLP, we found that lack of B cell MyD88 from the beginning of the immune response led to a more severe defect in the GC scale than abolishing MyD88 at later time points of the immune response. Consistently, B cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling significantly enhanced the initial proliferation of Ag-specific B cells, which was accompanied with a dramatic increase of plasma cell generation and induction of Bcl-6+ GC B cell precursors. In addition, B cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling promoted strong T-bet expression independent of IFN-γ and led to the preferential isotype switching to IgG2a/c. Thus, by promoting the initial Ag-specific B cell proliferation and differentiation, B cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling enhanced both T-independent and T-dependent Ab responses elicited by Qβ-VLP. This finding will provide additional insight into the role of TLR signaling in antiviral immunity, autoimmune diseases, and vaccine design.
Functional analysis of a zebrafish myd88 mutant identifies key transcriptional components of the innate immune system. Michiel van der Vaart;Joost J van Soest;Herman P Spaink;Annemarie H Meijer. 2013. Dis Model Mech. 6. PMID: 23471913

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize microbial and danger signals. Their downstream signaling upon ligand binding is vital for initiation of the innate immune response. In human and mammalian models, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88) is known for its central role as an adaptor molecule in interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) and TLR signaling. The zebrafish is increasingly used as a complementary model system for disease research and drug screening. Here, we describe a zebrafish line with a truncated version of MyD88 as the first zebrafish mutant for a TLR signaling component. We show that this immune-compromised mutant has a lower survival rate under standard rearing conditions and is more susceptible to challenge with the acute bacterial pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Salmonella typhimurium. Microarray and quantitative PCR analysis revealed that expression of genes for transcription factors central to innate immunity (including NF-ĸB and AP-1) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine Il1b, is dependent on MyD88 signaling during these bacterial infections. Nevertheless, expression of immune genes independent of MyD88 in the myd88 mutant line was sufficient to limit growth of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain. In the case of infection with the chronic bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium marinum, we show that MyD88 signaling has an important protective role during early pathogenesis. During mycobacterial infection, the myd88 mutant shows accelerated formation of granuloma-like aggregates and increased bacterial burden, with associated lower induction of genes central to innate immunity. This zebrafish myd88 mutant will be a valuable tool for further study of the role of IL1R and TLR signaling in the innate immunity processes underlying infectious diseases, inflammatory disorders and cancer.
Sodium fluoride impairs splenic innate immunity via inactivation of TLR2/MyD88 signaling pathway in mice. Ping Kuang;Hongrui Guo;Huidan Deng;Hengmin Cui;Jing Fang;Zhicai Zuo;Junliang Deng;Yinglun Li;Xun Wang;Ling Zhao. 2019. Chemosphere. 237. PMID: 31356994

Fluoride is known to affect the inflammatory process and autoregulation of immune responses, but the molecular mechanism by which fluoride causes innate immune injury remain largely unknown. Also, studies on sodium fluoride (NaF)-caused alteration of TLR signaling are still lacking. In the present study, we examined the effects of NaF on the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2/MyD88 signaling pathway molecules in the mouse spleen by using the methods of qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Consequently, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the effects of NaF on innate immunity. Two hundred and forty ICR mice were randomly divided into 4 groups with intragastric administration of distilled water in the control group and 12, 24, 48 mg/kg of NaF treatment in the experiment groups for 42 days. The findings revealed that NaF impaired splenic innate immunity in mice via inactivation of TLR2/MyD88 signaling pathway. NaF-inactivated TLR2/MyD88 signaling pathway was identified by prominently downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2/MyD88, IRAK4, IRAK1, TRAF6, TAK1, MKK4/MKK7 and c-Jun, which ultimately altered the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-8 to attenuate innate immunity.
Flightless I homolog negatively modulates the TLR pathway. Tianyi Wang;Tsung-Hsien Chuang;Tapani Ronni;Sheng Gu;Yu-Chun Du;Hong Cai;Hui-Qiao Sun;Helen L Yin;Xian Chen. 2006. J Immunol. 176. PMID: 16424162

To date, much of our knowledge about the signaling networks involved in the innate immune response has come from studies using nonphysiologic model systems rather than actual immune cells. In this study, we used a dual-tagging proteomic strategy to identify the components of the MyD88 signalosome in murine macrophages stimulated with lipid A. This systems approach revealed 16 potential MyD88-interacting partners, one of which, flightless I homolog (Fliih) was verified to interact with MyD88 and was further characterized as a negative regulator of the TLR4-MyD88 pathway. Conversely, a reduction in endogenous Fliih by small-interfering RNA enhanced the activation of NF-kappaB, as well as cytokine production by LPS. Results from immunoprecipitation and a two-hybrid assay further indicated that Fliih directly interfered with the formation of the TLR4-MyD88 signaling complex. These results in turn suggest a new basis for the regulation of the TLR pathway by Fliih.
TLR-activated B cells suppress T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Vicky Lampropoulou;Kai Hoehlig;Toralf Roch;Patricia Neves;Elisabeth Calderón Gómez;Claire H Sweenie;Yi Hao;Antonio A Freitas;Ulrich Steinhoff;Stephen M Anderton;Simon Fillatreau. 2008. J Immunol. 180. PMID: 18354200

TLR sense microbial infections, and control activation of immune responses. Dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes express TLR and the TLR-signaling adaptor protein MyD88. The impact of TLR-activated B cells on T cell-mediated inflammation is unknown. In this study, we have used mice carrying B cell-restricted deficiencies in MyD88 or in distinct TLR to examine the impact of TLR-activated B cells on a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We demonstrate that TLR-signaling in B cells suppresses inflammatory T cell responses (both Th1 and Th17), and stimulates recovery from EAE. Only certain TLR are required on B cells for resolution of EAE, and these are dispensable for disease initiation, indicating that a category of TLR agonists preferentially triggers a suppressive function in B cells and thereby limits autoimmune disease. The TLR agonists controlling the regulatory function of B cells are provided by components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in the adjuvant. Thus, MyD88 signaling in B cells antagonizes MyD88 signaling in other cells, which drives differentiation of Th17 cells and is required for induction of EAE. Altogether, our data indicate that B cells link recognition of microbial products via TLR to suppression of a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease.
TLR signaling-mediated differential histone modification at IL-10 and IL-12 promoter region leads to functional impairments in tumor-associated macrophages. Sayantan Banerjee;Kuntal Halder;Anamika Bose;Parna Bhattacharya;Gaurav Gupta;Santanu Karmahapatra;Shibali Das;Shubho Chaudhuri;Suchandra Bhattacharyya Majumdar;Subrata Majumdar. 2011. Carcinogenesis. 32. PMID: 21926109

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are severely compromised for the induction of proinflammatory mediators following toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. Here, we reported that the defective TLR response in TAM was due to the malfunctioning of the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling cascade in concert with downregulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 6 and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) 1. However, the expression of toll-interleukin1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon beta (TRIF) and TRAF 3, which act via the TRIF-dependent pathway of TLR signaling, were found to be unaffected in TAM. Although, TRIF-mediated signal inducers, lipopolysaccharide or poly (I:C), induced high level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, but they were failed to induce significant p38MAPK phosphorylation in TAM. Consequently, ERK-1/2-dependent histone phosphorylation at the IL-10 promoter elicited enhanced interleukin (IL)-10 production by TAM. Whereas, the lack of transcription favorable histone phosphorylation at the IL-12 promoter was accompanied with a very low amount of IL-12 expression in TAM. Moreover, ERK-1/2 MAPK activation resulted in enhanced IRAK M induction in TAM, a specific inhibitor of MyD88 pathway. Therefore, for the first time, we decipher an unexplored TLR signaling in TAM where ERK-1/2 activation in a MyD88-independent pathway results in transcription favorable histone modification at the IL-10 promoter region to enhance IL-10-mediated immunosuppression. Additionally, by enhancing IRAK M induction, it also polarizes TAM toward a more immunosuppressive form.
Destructive role of myeloid differentiation factor 88 and protective role of TRIF in interleukin-17-dependent arthritis in mice. Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz;Fons A J van de Loo;Marije I Koenders;Monique M Helsen;Birgitte Walgreen;Liduine A van den Bersselaar;Onno J Arntz;Nozomi Takahashi;Leo A B Joosten;Wim B van den Berg. 2011. Arthritis Rheum. 64. PMID: 22147588

OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence indicates the involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the progression of arthritis; however, the contribution of the two signaling pathways used by TLRs, which are mediated by myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TRIF, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the specific roles of MyD88 and TRIF in chronic experimental arthritis and the accompanying adaptive immune responses. METHODS: Chronic arthritis was induced in wild-type, MyD88(-/-) , and Trif(lps2) (TRIF(-/-) ) mice by repetitive intraarticular injections of streptococcal cell wall (SCW) fragments. SCW-specific T cell and B cell responses, joint swelling, and histopathologic changes were analyzed during chronic arthritis. RESULTS: Both MyD88 and TRIF pathways contributed to antigen-specific T cell proliferation and antibody production, with the MyD88 pathway playing the dominant role. The severity of joint swelling and synovial inflammation, as well as the histopathologic damage to cartilage and bone, was strongly dependent on MyD88 signaling, whereas TRIF was redundant. MyD88 signaling was critical for the development of pathogenic T cell response (i.e., interleukin-17 [IL-17] production) in response to SCW antigen. Interestingly, when the T cell-dependent phase was prolonged, TRIF signaling appeared to down-regulate bone erosion, an effect accompanied by an inhibitory effect on IL-17 production. CONCLUSION: This study reveals a central role of MyD88 and a counterregulatory function of TRIF in T cell-driven arthritis. The findings provide a rationale for a pathway-specific interference in order to block the pathogenic features and to preserve or stimulate the beneficial aspects of TLR signaling.
Toll-like receptor signal adaptor protein MyD88 is required for sustained endotoxin-induced acute hypoferremic response in mice. Antonio Layoun;Hua Huang;Annie Calvé;Manuela M Santos. 2012. Am J Pathol. 180. PMID: 22497726

Hypoferremia, associated with immune system activation, involves a marked reduction in the levels of circulating iron, coupled with iron sequestration within macrophages. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays an important role in the development of the hypoferremic response, but how downstream signaling events affect genes involved in iron metabolism is incompletely understood. We investigated the involvement of MyD88-dependent (MyD88) and MyD88-independent (TRIF) TLR signaling in the development of hypoferremia. Using MyD88-deficient and TRIF-deficient mice, we show that MyD88 and TRIF signaling pathways are critical for up-regulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the iron regulator hepcidin. In addition, MyD88 signaling is required for the induction of lipocalin 2 secretion and iron sequestration in the spleen. Activation of TLR4 and TLR3 signaling through LPS and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] treatments resulted in rapid down-regulation of HFE protein [encoded by the hemochromatosis gene (Hfe)] and ferroportin [encoded by solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (Slc40a1)] expression in the spleen, independent of MyD88 or TRIF signaling and proinflammatory cytokine production. However, lack of MyD88 signaling significantly impaired the hypoferremic response triggered by LPS, indicating that ferroportin and HFE protein down-regulation alone are insufficient to maintain hypoferremia. The extent of the hypoferremic response was found to be limited by initial, basal iron levels. Together, these results suggest that targeting specific TLR signaling pathways by affecting the function of adaptor molecules may provide new strategies to counteract iron sequestration within macrophages during inflammation.
Treg-mediated suppression of atherosclerosis requires MYD88 signaling in DCs. Manikandan Subramanian;Edward Thorp;Goran K Hansson;Ira Tabas. 2012. J Clin Invest. 123. PMID: 23257360

TLR activation on CD11c+ DCs triggers DC maturation, which is critical for T cell activation. Given the expansion of CD11c+ DCs during the progression of atherosclerosis and the key role of T cell activation in atherogenesis, we sought to understand the role of TLR signaling in CD11c+ DCs in atherosclerosis. To this end, we used a mouse model in which a key TLR adaptor involved in DC maturation, MYD88, is deleted in CD11c+ DCs. We transplanted bone marrow containing Myd88-deficient CD11c+ DCs into Western diet-fed LDL receptor knockout mice and found that the transplanted mice had decreased activation of effector T cells in the periphery as well as decreased infiltration of both effector T cells and Tregs in atherosclerotic lesions. Surprisingly, the net effect was an increase in atherosclerotic lesion size due to an increase in the content of myeloid-derived inflammatory cells. The mechanism involves increased lesional monocyte recruitment associated with loss of Treg-mediated suppression of MCP-1. Thus, the dominant effect of MYD88 signaling in CD11c+ DCs in the setting of atherosclerosis is to promote the development of atheroprotective Tregs. In the absence of MYD88 signaling in CD11c+ DCs, the loss of this protective Treg response trumps the loss of proatherogenic T effector cell activation.
Requirement for MyD88 signaling in B cells and dendritic cells for germinal center anti-nuclear antibody production in Lyn-deficient mice. Zhaolin Hua;Andrew J Gross;Chrystelle Lamagna;Natalia Ramos-Hernández;Patrizia Scapini;Ming Ji;Haitao Shao;Clifford A Lowell;Baidong Hou;Anthony L DeFranco. 2014. J Immunol. 192. PMID: 24379120

The intracellular tyrosine kinase Lyn mediates inhibitory receptor function in B cells and myeloid cells, and Lyn(-/-) mice spontaneously develop an autoimmune and inflammatory disease that closely resembles human systemic lupus erythematosus. TLR-signaling pathways have been implicated in the production of anti-nuclear Abs in systemic lupus erythematosus and mouse models of it. We used a conditional allele of Myd88 to determine whether the autoimmunity of Lyn(-/-) mice is dependent on TLR/MyD88 signaling in B cells and/or in dendritic cells (DCs). The production of IgG anti-nuclear Abs, as well as the deposition of these Abs in the glomeruli of the kidneys, leading to glomerulonephritis in Lyn(-/-) mice, were completely abolished by selective deletion of Myd88 in B cells, and autoantibody production and glomerulonephritis were delayed or decreased by deletion of Myd88 in DCs. The reduced autoantibody production in mice lacking MyD88 in B cells or DCs was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the spontaneous germinal center (GC) response, suggesting that autoantibodies in Lyn(-/-) mice may depend on GC responses. Consistent with this view, IgG anti-nuclear Abs were absent if T cells were deleted (TCRβ(-/-) TCRδ(-/-) mice) or if T cells were unable to contribute to GC responses as the result of mutation of the adaptor molecule SAP. Thus, the autoimmunity of Lyn(-/-) mice was dependent on T cells and on TLR/MyD88 signaling in B cells and in DCs, supporting a model in which DC hyperactivity combines with defects in tolerance in B cells to lead to a T cell-dependent systemic autoimmunity in Lyn(-/-) mice.
DAMP molecule S100A9 acts as a molecular pattern to enhance inflammation during influenza A virus infection: role of DDX21-TRIF-TLR4-MyD88 pathway. Su-Yu Tsai;Jesus A Segovia;Te-Hung Chang;Ian R Morris;Michael T Berton;Philippe A Tessier;Mélanie R Tardif;Annabelle Cesaro;Santanu Bose. 2014. PLoS Pathog. 10. PMID: 24391503

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) trigger host immune response by activating pattern recognition receptors like toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the mechanism whereby several pathogens, including viruses, activate TLRs via a non-PAMP mechanism is unclear. Endogenous "inflammatory mediators" called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) have been implicated in regulating immune response and inflammation. However, the role of DAMPs in inflammation/immunity during virus infection has not been studied. We have identified a DAMP molecule, S100A9 (also known as Calgranulin B or MRP-14), as an endogenous non-PAMP activator of TLR signaling during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. S100A9 was released from undamaged IAV-infected cells and extracellular S100A9 acted as a critical host-derived molecular pattern to regulate inflammatory response outcome and disease during infection by exaggerating pro-inflammatory response, cell-death and virus pathogenesis. Genetic studies showed that the DDX21-TRIF signaling pathway is required for S100A9 gene expression/production during infection. Furthermore, the inflammatory activity of extracellular S100A9 was mediated by activation of the TLR4-MyD88 pathway. Our studies have thus, underscored the role of a DAMP molecule (i.e. extracellular S100A9) in regulating virus-associated inflammation and uncovered a previously unknown function of the DDX21-TRIF-S100A9-TLR4-MyD88 signaling network in regulating inflammation during infection.
MyD88-mediated TLR signaling protects against acute rotavirus infection while inflammasome cytokines direct Ab response. Robin Uchiyama;Benoit Chassaing;Benyue Zhang;Andrew T Gewirtz. 2014. Innate Immun. 21. PMID: 25213347

Rotavirus (RV) infects small intestinal epithelial cells, inducing severe diarrhea in children, resulting in over 500,000 deaths annually. Relatively little is known about how innate immunity contains acute infection and drives adaptive immune responses that afford complete clearance of RV and protection against future infection. Hence, we examined the consequence of the absence of MyD88, known to be central to innate immunity, in a mouse model of RV infection. The absence of MyD88, but not combined blockade of IL-1β and IL-18 signaling, resulted in greater infectivity, as reflected by levels of RV in feces, intestinal lysates and viremia. Such increased RV levels correlated with an increase in incidence and duration of diarrhea. Loss of MyD88 also impaired humoral immunity to RV. Specifically, MyD88 knockout generated less RV-specific IgA and exhibited profoundly reduced RV-specific IgG2c/IgG1 ratios suggesting that MyD88 signaling drives RV-induced Th1 responses. A study of MyD88 bone marrow chimeras indicated that MyD88-dependent control of acute RV infection was mediated by both hemopoietic and non-hemopoietic cells, while generation of RV-specific humoral immunity was driven by MyD88 signaling in hemopoietic cells, which reflected the loss of IL-1β and IL-18 expression by these cells. Thus, TLR signaling and inflammasome cytokines drive innate and adaptive immunity to RV.
MyD88 Signaling Regulates Steady-State Migration of Intestinal CD103+ Dendritic Cells Independently of TNF-α and the Gut Microbiota. Karin Hägerbrand;Jessica Westlund;Ulf Yrlid;William Agace;Bengt Johansson-Lindbom. 2015. J Immunol. 195. PMID: 26259586

Intestinal homeostasis and induction of systemic tolerance to fed Ags (i.e., oral tolerance) rely on the steady-state migration of small intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells (DCs) into draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). The majority of these migratory DCs express the α integrin chain CD103, and in this study we demonstrate that the steady-state mobilization of CD103(+) DCs into the MLN is in part governed by the IL-1R family/TLR signaling adaptor molecule MyD88. Similar to mice with complete MyD88 deficiency, specific deletion of MyD88 in DCs resulted in a 50-60% reduction in short-term accumulation of both CD103(+)CD11b(+) and CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs in the MLN. DC migration was independent of caspase-1, which is responsible for the inflammasome-dependent proteolytic activation of IL-1 cytokine family members, and was not affected by treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Consistent with the latter finding, the proportion and phenotypic composition of DCs were similar in mesenteric lymph from germ-free and conventionally housed mice. Although TNF-α was required for CD103(+) DC migration to the MLN after oral administration of the TLR7 agonist R848, it was not required for the steady-state migration of these cells. Similarly, TLR signaling through the adaptor molecule Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β and downstream production of type I IFN were not required for steady-state CD103(+) DC migration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MyD88 signaling in DCs, independently of the microbiota and TNF-α, is required for optimal steady-state migration of small intestinal lamina propria CD103(+) DCs into the MLN.
Human placental mesenchymal stem cells of fetal origins-alleviated inflammation and fibrosis by attenuating MyD88 signaling in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice. Feng Li;Fei Han;Hui Li;Jia Zhang;Xia Qiao;Juan Shi;Li Yang;Jianda Dong;Meihui Luo;Jun Wei;Xiaoming Liu. 2017. Mol Immunol. 90. PMID: 28662409

Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease that its pathogenic mechanism currently is incompletely understood. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has recently been identified as a regulator of inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of different origins offer a great promise in treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However mechanisms of pathogenic roles of TLR signaling and therapeutic effects of MSCs in the IPF remain elusive. In present study, the involvement of TLR signaling and the therapeutic role of MSCs were interrogated in MyD88-deficient mice using human placental MSCs of fetal origins (hfPMSCs). The results showed an alleviated pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-deficient mice treated with bleomycin (BLM), accompanied with a reduced TGF-β signaling and production of pro-fibrotic cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β. An exposure of HLF1 lung fibroblasts, A549 epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages to BLM led an increased expression of key components of MyD88 and TGF-β signaling cascades. Of interest, enforced expression and inhibition of MyD88 protein resulted in an enhanced and a reduced TGF-β signaling in above cells in the presence of BLM, respectively. However, the addition of TGF-β1 showed a marginally inhibitory effect on MyD88 signaling in these cells in the absence of BLM. Importantly, the administration of hfPMSCs could significantly attenuate BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice, along with a reduced hydroxyproline (HYP) deposition, MyD88 and TGF-β signaling activation, and production of pro-fibrotic cytokines. These results may suggest an importance of MyD88/TGF-β signaling axis in the tissue homeostasis and functional integrity of lung in response to injury, which may offer a novel target for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.
Toll-Like Receptor and miRNA-let-7e Expression Alter the Inflammatory Response in Leishmania amazonensis-Infected Macrophages. Sandra Marcia Muxel;Stephanie Maia Acuña;Juliana Ide Aoki;Ricardo Andrade Zampieri;Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter. 2018. Front Immunol. 9. PMID: 30555476

Parasite recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) contributes to macrophage activation and subsequent control of Leishmania infection through the coordinated production of pro-inflammatory and microbicidal effector molecules. The modulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression by Leishmania infection potentially mediates the post-transcriptional regulation of the expression of genes involved in leishmanicidal activity. Here, the contribution of TLR signaling to the miRNA profile and gene expression was evaluated in Leishmania amazonensis-infected murine macrophages. The infectivity of L. amazonensis was higher in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice knockout for myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88-/-), TLR2 (TLR2-/-), or TLR4 (TLR4-/-) than wild type C57BL/6 (WT). L. amazonensis infection of WT macrophages modulated the expression of 32% of the miRNAs analyzed, while 50% were upregulated. The absence of MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 altered the percentage of miRNAs modulated during L. amazonensis infection, including the downregulation of let-7e expression. Moreover, the absence of signals mediated by MyD88, TLR2, or TLR4 reduced nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) mRNA expression during infection. Indeed, the inhibition of let-7e increased levels of the Nos2 mRNA and NOS2 (or iNOS) protein and nitric oxide (NO) production in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages (4-24 h). The absence of TLR2 and inhibition of let-7e increased the expression of the arginase 1 (Arg1) mRNA but did not alter the protein level during infection. However, higher levels of the L-arginine transporters Cat2B and Cat1 were detected in the absence of Myd88 signaling during infection but were not altered following let-7e inhibition. The inhibition of let-7e impacted the global expression of genes in the TLR pathway by upregulating the expression of recognition and adaptors molecules, such as Tlr6, Tlr9, Ly96, Tirap, Traf 6, Ticam1, Tollip, Casp8, Map3k1, Mapk8, Nfkbib, Nfkbil1, Ppara, Mapk8ip3, Hspd1, and Ube2n, as well as immunomodulators, such as Ptgs2/Cox2, Csf 2, Csf 3, Ifnb1, Il6ra, and Ilr1, impacting NOS2 expression, NO production and parasite infectiveness. In conclusion, L. amazonensis infection alters the TLR signaling pathways by modulating the expression of miRNAs in macrophages to subvert the host immune responses.
NF-κB mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced alternative pre-mRNA splicing of MyD88 in mouse macrophages. Frank Fang-Yao Lee;Kevin Davidson;Chelsea Harris;Jazalle McClendon;William J Janssen;Scott Alper. 2020. J Biol Chem. 295. PMID: 32179652

Although a robust inflammatory response is needed to combat infection, this response must ultimately be terminated to prevent chronic inflammation. One mechanism that terminates inflammatory signaling is the production of alternative mRNA splice forms in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. Whereas most genes in the TLR pathway encode positive mediators of inflammatory signaling, several, including that encoding the MyD88 signaling adaptor, also produce alternative spliced mRNA isoforms that encode dominant-negative inhibitors of the response. Production of these negatively acting alternatively spliced isoforms is induced by stimulation with the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS); thus, this alternative pre-mRNA splicing represents a negative feedback loop that terminates TLR signaling and prevents chronic inflammation. In the current study, we investigated the mechanisms regulating the LPS-induced alternative pre-mRNA splicing of the MyD88 transcript in murine macrophages. We found that 1) the induction of the alternatively spliced MyD88 form is due to alternative pre-mRNA splicing and not caused by another RNA regulatory mechanism, 2) MyD88 splicing is regulated by both the MyD88- and TRIF-dependent arms of the TLR signaling pathway, 3) MyD88 splicing is regulated by the NF-κB transcription factor, and 4) NF-κB likely regulates MyD88 alternative pre-mRNA splicing per se rather than regulating splicing indirectly by altering MyD88 transcription. We conclude that alternative splicing of MyD88 may provide a sensitive mechanism that ensures robust termination of inflammation for tissue repair and restoration of normal tissue homeostasis once an infection is controlled.
Negative Regulation of TLR Signaling by BCAP Requires Dimerization of Its DBB Domain. Johannes U Lauenstein;Michael J Scherm;Atul Udgata;Martin C Moncrieffe;David I Fisher;Nicholas J Gay. 2020. J Immunol. 204. PMID: 32198144

The B cell adaptor protein (BCAP) is a multimodular regulator of inflammatory signaling in diverse immune system cells. BCAP couples TLR signaling to phosphoinositide metabolism and inhibits MyD88-directed signal transduction. BCAP is recruited to the TLR signalosome forming multitypic interactions with the MAL and MyD88 signaling adaptors. In this study, we show that indirect dimerization of BCAP TIR is required for negative regulation of TLR signaling. This regulation is mediated by a transcription factor Ig (TIG/IPT) domain, a fold found in the NF-κB family of transcription factors. We have solved the crystal structure of the BCAP TIG and find that it is most similar to that of early B cell factor 1 (EBF1). In both cases, the dimer is stabilized by a helix-loop-helix motif at the C terminus and interactions between the β-sheets of the Ig domains. BCAP is exclusively localized in the cytosol and is unable to bind DNA. Thus, the TIG domain is a promiscuous dimerization module that has been appropriated for a range of regulatory functions in gene expression and signal transduction.
Negative regulation of Toll-like-receptor signaling by IRF-4. Hideo Negishi;Yusuke Ohba;Hideyuki Yanai;Akinori Takaoka;Kiri Honma;Katsuyuki Yui;Toshifumi Matsuyama;Tadatsugu Taniguchi;Kenya Honda. 2005. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102. PMID: 16236719

The recognition of microbial components by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is an event central to the activation of innate and adaptive immune systems. TLR activation triggers the induction of downstream target genes, wherein the TLR-interacting adaptor molecule MyD88 recruits various signaling molecules and transcription factors. Two members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, IRF-5 and IRF-7, interact with MyD88 and induce proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs, respectively. Here, we show that IRF-4 also interacts with MyD88 and acts as a negative regulator of TLR signaling. IRF-4 mRNA is induced by TLR activation, and IRF-4 competes with IRF-5, but not with IRF-7, for MyD88 interaction. The TLR-dependent induction of proinflammatory cytokines is markedly enhanced in peritoneal macrophages from mice deficient in the Irf4 gene, whereas the induction is inhibited by the ectopic expression of IRF-4 in a macrophage cell line. The critical function of IRF-4 in TLR signaling in vivo is underscored by the observation that Irf4-deficient mice show hypersensitivity to DNA-induced shock, with elevated serum proinflammatory cytokine levels. This study may provide an insight into the complex regulatory mechanisms of MyD88 signaling by IRFs.
Evidence for licensing of IFN-gamma-induced IFN regulatory factor 1 transcription factor by MyD88 in Toll-like receptor-dependent gene induction program. Hideo Negishi;Yasuyuki Fujita;Hideyuki Yanai;Shinya Sakaguchi;Xinshou Ouyang;Masahiro Shinohara;Hiroshi Takayanagi;Yusuke Ohba;Tadatsugu Taniguchi;Kenya Honda. 2006. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103. PMID: 17018642

The recognition of microbial components by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiates signal transduction pathways, which trigger the expression of a series of target genes. It has been reported that TLR signaling is enhanced by cytokines such as IFN-gamma, but the mechanisms underlying this enhancement remain unclear. The MyD88 adaptor, which is essential for signaling by many TLRs, recruits members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, such as IRF5 and IRF7, to evoke the activation of TLR target genes. In this study we demonstrate that IRF1, which is induced by IFN-gamma, also interacts with and is activated by MyD88 upon TLR activation. We provide evidence that MyD88-associated IRF1 migrates into the nucleus more efficiently than non-MyD88-associated IRF1 and that this IRF1 selectively participates in the TLR-dependent gene induction program. The critical role of MyD88-dependent "IRF1 licensing" is underscored by the observation that the induction of a specific gene subset downstream of the TLR-MyD88 pathway, such as IFN-beta, inducible NO synthase, and IL-12p35, are impaired in Irf1-deficient cells. Thus, our present study places IRF1 as an additional member participating in MyD88 signaling and provides a mechanistic insight into the enhancement of the TLR-dependent gene induction program by IFN-gamma.
Myd88-dependent positioning of Ptgs2-expressing stromal cells maintains colonic epithelial proliferation during injury. Sarah L Brown;Terrence E Riehl;Monica R Walker;Michael J Geske;Jason M Doherty;William F Stenson;Thaddeus S Stappenbeck. 2007. J Clin Invest. 117. PMID: 17200722

We identified cellular and molecular mechanisms within the stem cell niche that control the activity of colonic epithelial progenitors (ColEPs) during injury. Here, we show that while WT mice maintained ColEP proliferation in the rectum following injury with dextran sodium sulfate, similarly treated Myd88(-/-) (TLR signaling-deficient) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2(-/-) (Ptgs2(-/-)) mice exhibited a profound inhibition of epithelial proliferation and cellular organization within rectal crypts. Exogenous addition of 16,16-dimethyl PGE(2) (dmPGE(2)) rescued the effects of this injury in both knockout mouse strains, indicating that Myd88 signaling is upstream of Ptgs2 and PGE(2). In WT and Myd88(-/-) mice, Ptgs2 was expressed in scattered mesenchymal cells. Surprisingly, Ptgs2 expression was not regulated by injury. Rather, in WT mice, the combination of injury and Myd88 signaling led to the repositioning of a subset of the Ptgs2-expressing stromal cells from the mesenchyme surrounding the middle and upper crypts to an area surrounding the crypt base adjacent to ColEPs. These findings demonstrate that Myd88 and prostaglandin signaling pathways interact to preserve epithelial proliferation during injury using what we believe to be a previously undescribed mechanism requiring proper cellular mobilization within the crypt niche.
Role for MyD88 signaling in murine gammaherpesvirus 68 latency. Lisa M Gargano;Janice M Moser;Samuel H Speck. 2008. J Virol. 82. PMID: 18256152

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known predominantly for their role in activating the innate immune response. Recently, TLR signaling via MyD88 has been reported to play an important function in development of a B-cell response. Since B cells are a major latency reservoir for murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), we investigated the role of TLR signaling in the establishment and maintenance of MHV68 latency in vivo. Mice deficient in MyD88 (MyD88(-/-)) or TLR3 (TLR3(-/-)) were infected with MHV68. Analysis of splenocytes recovered at day 16 postinfection from MyD88(-/-) mice compared to those from wild-type control mice revealed a lower frequency of (i) activated B cells, (ii) germinal-center B cells, and (iii) class-switched B cells. Accompanying this substantial defect in the B-cell response was an approximately 10-fold decrease in the establishment of splenic latency. In contrast, no defect in viral latency was observed in TLR3(-/-) mice. Analysis of MHV68-specific antibody responses also demonstrated a substantial decrease in the kinetics of the response in MyD88(-/-) mice. Analysis of wild-type x MyD88(-/-) mixed-bone-marrow chimeric mice demonstrated that there is a selective failure of MyD88(-/-) B cells to participate in germinal-center reactions as well as to become activated and undergo class switching. In addition, while MHV68 established latency efficiently in the MyD88-sufficient B cells, there was again a ca. 10-fold reduction in the frequency of MyD88(-/-) B cells harboring latent MHV68. This phenotype indicates that MyD88 is important for the establishment of MHV68 latency and is directly related to the role of MyD88 in the generation of a B-cell response. Furthermore, the generation of a B-cell response to MHV68 was intrinsic to B cells and was independent of the interleukin-1 receptor, a cytokine receptor that also signals through MyD88. These data provide evidence for a unique role for MyD88 in the establishment of MHV68 latency.
Both TRIF- and MyD88-dependent signaling contribute to host defense against pulmonary Klebsiella infection. Shanshan Cai;Sanjay Batra;Li Shen;Nobuko Wakamatsu;Samithamby Jeyaseelan. 2009. J Immunol. 183. PMID: 19846873

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes extensive lung damage. TLR signaling involves adaptors TRIF and MyD88. However, the relative contribution of TRIF and MyD88 signaling in host defense against pulmonary K. pneumoniae infection has not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of TRIF and MyD88 in K. pneumoniae pneumonia. TRIF(-/-) mice infected with K. pneumoniae showed impaired survival and reduced bacterial clearance, neutrophil influx, histopathologic evidence of inflammation, and TNF-alpha, IL-6, KC, MIP-2, but not LIX, expression in the lungs. In addition, K. pneumoniae-induced late NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation of MAPKs was attenuated in the lungs of TRIF(-/-) mice. However, MyD88(-/-) mice infected with K. pneumoniae showed a much more remarkable phenotype, including impaired survival and reduced bacterial clearance, histopathology, and TNF-alpha, IL-6, KC, MIP-2, and LIX expression with almost no neutrophil influx in the lungs. In MyD88(-/-) mice, K. pneumoniae-induced early NF-kappaB and MAPK activation in the lungs was also reduced. Furthermore, the role of MyD88 is dominant over TRIF because TRIF/MyD88 double knockout mice displayed a more pronounced phenotype than TRIF(-/-) mice. Moreover, human alveolar macrophages pretreated with MyD88 blocking peptide showed attenuated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 expression. Also, C57BL/6 mice pretreated with MyD88 blocking peptide exhibited attenuation in K. pneumoniae-induced neutrophil influx and enhanced bacterial burden in the lungs and dissemination. Overall, this investigation provides new insights into the TRIF and MyD88 signaling triggered by pulmonary K. pneumoniae infection in the lungs and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of MyD88 in reducing excessive neutrophil influx in human disease during Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia.
MyD88 signaling in nonhematopoietic cells protects mice against induced colitis by regulating specific EGF receptor ligands. Katharina Brandl;Lei Sun;Christina Neppl;Owen M Siggs;Sylvain M Le Gall;Wataru Tomisato;Xiaohong Li;Xin Du;Daniela N Maennel;Carl P Blobel;Bruce Beutler. 2010. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107. PMID: 21041656

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger intestinal inflammation when the epithelial barrier is breached by physical trauma or pathogenic microbes. Although it has been shown that TLR-mediated signals are ultimately protective in models of acute intestinal inflammation [such as dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis], it is less clear which cells mediate protection. Here we demonstrate that TLR signaling in the nonhematopoietic compartment confers protection in acute DSS-induced colitis. Epithelial cells of MyD88/Trif-deficient mice express diminished levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG), and systemic lipopolysaccharide administration induces their expression in the colon. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutations in Adam17 (which is required for AREG and EREG processing) and in Egfr both produce a strong DSS colitis phenotype, and the Adam17 mutation exerts its deleterious effect in the nonhematopoietic compartment. The effect of abrogation of TLR signaling is mitigated by systemic administration of AREG. A TLR→MyD88→AREG/EREG→EGFR signaling pathway is represented in nonhematopoietic cells of the intestinal tract, responds to microbial stimuli once barriers are breached, and mediates protection against DSS-induced colitis.
Role of the Toll-like receptor pathway in the recognition of orthopedic implant wear-debris particles. Jeremy I Pearl;Ting Ma;Afraaz R Irani;Zhinong Huang;William H Robinson;Robert L Smith;Stuart B Goodman. 2011. Biomaterials. 32. PMID: 21592562

The inflammatory response to prosthetic implant-derived wear particles is the primary cause of bone loss and aseptic loosening of implants, but the mechanisms by which macrophages recognize and respond to particles remain unknown. Studies of innate immunity demonstrate that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS). All TLRs signal through myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), except TLR3 which signals through TIR domain containing adapter inducing interferon-beta (TRIF), and TLR4 which signals through both MyD88 and TRIF. We hypothesized that wear-debris particles may act as PAMPs/DAMPs and activate macrophages via TLRs. To test this hypothesis, we first demonstrated that inhibition of MyD88 decreases polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle-induced production of TNF-α in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Next we compared particle-induced production of TNF-α among MyD88 knockout (MyD88(-/-)), TRIF knockout (TRIF(-/-)), and wild type (WT) murine macrophages. Relative to WT, disruption of MyD88 signaling diminished, and disruption of TRIF amplified the particle-induced production of TNF-α. Gene expression data indicated that this latter increase in TNF-α was due to a compensatory increase in expression of MyD88 associated components of the TLR pathway. Finally, using an in vivo model, MyD88(-/-) mice developed less particle-induced osteolysis than WT mice. These results indicate that the response to PMMA particles is partly dependent on MyD88, presumably as part of TLR signaling; MyD88 may represent a therapeutic target for prevention of wear debris-induced periprosthetic osteolysis.
Saturated fatty acid and TLR signaling link β cell dysfunction and islet inflammation. Kosei Eguchi;Ichiro Manabe;Yumiko Oishi-Tanaka;Mitsuru Ohsugi;Nozomu Kono;Fusa Ogata;Nobuhiro Yagi;Umeharu Ohto;Masao Kimoto;Kensuke Miyake;Kazuyuki Tobe;Hiroyuki Arai;Takashi Kadowaki;Ryozo Nagai. 2012. Cell Metab. 15. PMID: 22465073

Consumption of foods high in saturated fatty acids (FAs) as well as elevated levels of circulating free FAs are known to be associated with T2D. Though previous studies showed inflammation is crucially involved in the development of insulin resistance, how inflammation contributes to β cell dysfunction has remained unclear. We report here the saturated FA palmitate induces β cell dysfunction in vivo by activating inflammatory processes within islets. Through a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies, we show β cells respond to palmitate via the TLR4/MyD88 pathway and produce chemokines that recruit CD11b(+)Ly-6C(+) M1-type proinflammatory monocytes/macrophages to the islets. Depletion of M1-type cells protected mice from palmitate-induced β cell dysfunction. Islet inflammation also plays an essential role in β cell dysfunction in T2D mouse models. Collectively, these results demonstrate a clear mechanistic link between β cell dysfunction and inflammation mediated at least in part via the FFA-TLR4/MyD88 pathway.
Absence of MyD88 signaling induces donor-specific kidney allograft tolerance. Huiling Wu;Gerda A Noordmans;Maya R O'Brien;Jin Ma;Cathy Y Zhao;Geoff Y Zhang;Tony K T Kwan;Stephen I Alexander;Steven J Chadban. 2012. J Am Soc Nephrol. 23. PMID: 22878960

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a fundamental role in innate immunity and provide a link between innate and adaptive responses to an allograft; however, whether the development of acute and chronic allograft rejection requires TLR signaling is unknown. Here, we studied TLR signaling in a fully MHC-mismatched, life-sustaining murine model of kidney allograft rejection. Mice deficient in the TLR adaptor protein MyD88 developed donor antigen-specific tolerance, which protected them from both acute and chronic allograft rejection and increased their survival after transplantation compared with wild-type controls. Administration of an anti-CD25 antibody to MyD88-deficient recipients depleted CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells and broke tolerance. In addition, defective development of Th17 immune responses to alloantigen both in vitro and in vivo occurred, resulting in an increased ratio of Tregs to Th17 effectors. Thus, MyD88 deficiency was associated with an altered balance of Tregs over Th17 cells, promoting tolerance instead of rejection. This study provides evidence that targeting innate immunity may be a clinically relevant strategy to facilitate transplantation tolerance.
TLR4 signaling induces the release of microparticles by tumor cells that regulate inflammatory cytokine IL-6 of macrophages via microRNA let-7b. Dapeng Li;Haibo Jia;Huafeng Zhang;Meng Lv;Jing Liu;Yi Zhang;Tao Huang;Bo Huang. 2012. Oncoimmunology. 1. PMID: 22934260

Tumor cells expressing TLRs is generally recognized to mediate tumor inflammation. However, whether and how tumor TLR signaling pathways negatively regulate tumor inflammation remains unclear. In this report, we find that TLR4 signaling of H22 hepatocarcinoma tumor cells is transduced through MyD88 pathway to actin cytoskeletons, leading to the release of microparticles (MPs), the cellular membrane-derived vesicles. As a result, tumor macrophages take up MPs and acquire MP-contained microRNA let-7b, which attenuates tumor inflammation by targeting proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Thus, tumor TLR signaling, contrary to the original promoting effect, may play an opposite role in downregulating tumor inflammation through MP pathways.
Regulation of TLR2-mediated tolerance and cross-tolerance through IRAK4 modulation by miR-132 and miR-212. Md A Nahid;Bing Yao;Paul R Dominguez-Gutierrez;Lakshmyya Kesavalu;Minoru Satoh;Edward K L Chan. 2012. J Immunol. 190. PMID: 23264652

Innate immune response is the first defense against pathogens via recognition by various conserved pattern recognition receptors, such as TLRs, to initiate a rapid and strong cytokine alarm. TLR signaling-mediated cytokine production must be properly regulated to prevent pathological conditions deriving from overproduction of cytokines. In this study, the role of specific microRNAs in TLR-signaling pathway was investigated to reveal the cross-interaction and -regulation in the MyD88 pathway. In peptidoglycan (PGN)/TLR2-stimulated THP-1 monocytes, PBMCs, and primary macrophages showed rapid and dramatic miR-132 and miR-212 (miR-132/-212) upregulation. This newly identified response appeared earlier in time than the characteristic miR-146a response in LPS-TLR4 stimulation. The rapid induction of miR-132/-212 was transcription factor CREB dependent, and the sustained expression of miR-132/-212 was responsible for inducing tolerance to subsequent PGN challenge. Cross-tolerance was observed by TLR5 ligand flagellin and heat-killed or live bacteria resulting from miR-132/-212 upregulation. Mechanistically, IRAK4 was identified and validated as a target of miR-132/-212 by luciferase reporter assay and seed-sequence mutagenesis of the reporter. Transfection of miR-132 or miR-212 alone mimicked PGN tolerance in monocytes, whereas transfected specific miRNA inhibitors tampered the tolerance effect. During bacterial infection, PGN-mediated TLR2 signaling induces miR-132/-212 to downregulate IRAK4, an early component in the MyD88-dependent pathway, whereas LPS/TLR4-induced miR-146a downregulates downstream components of the same MyD88-dependent pathway. The identification of miR-132/-212 and miR-146a together to prevent damaging consequences from the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines by targeting a common signaling pathway is significant and will provide insights into future design and development of therapeutics.
SHPS-1 and a synthetic peptide representing its ITIM inhibit the MyD88, but not TRIF, pathway of TLR signaling through activation of SHP and PI3K in THP-1 cells. Eun-Ju Kim;Kyoungho Suk;Won-Ha Lee. 2013. Inflamm Res. 62. PMID: 23314616

BACKGROUND: Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate (SHPS)-1 is known to have regulatory effects on myeloid cells. However, its role in macrophage activation is not clearly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to investigate the role of SHPS-1 in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated activation, human monocytic cell lines were treated with anti-SHPS-1 monoclonal antibody. The triggering of SHPS-1 blocked the expression of IL-8 and TNF-α in cells treated with a TLR4 ligand that induces a signaling pathway involving myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF). Interestingly, SHPS-1 inhibited TLR9/MyD88-mediated, but not TLR3/TRIF-mediated, expression of IL-8. Accordingly, a synthetic peptide representing the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) of SHPS-1 suppressed only the MyD88 pathway. Utilization of specific inhibitors and Western blot analysis indicated that the inhibitory effects were mediated by Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatases (SHPs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). CONCLUSION: SHPS-1 negatively regulates the MyD88-dependent TLR signaling pathway through the inhibition of NF-κB activation.
Resistance of the brain to Escherichia coli K1 infection depends on MyD88 signaling and the contribution of neutrophils and monocytes. Sandra Ribes;Tommy Regen;Tanja Meister;Simone C Tauber;Sandra Schütze;Alexander Mildner;Matthias Mack;Uwe-Karsten Hanisch;Roland Nau. 2013. Infect Immun. 81. PMID: 23478323

Escherichia coli is the leading cause of Gram-negative neonatal bacterial meningitis and also causes meningitis and meningoencephalitis in older and immunocompromised patients. Here, we determined the contribution of granulocytes, monocytes, and TLR signaling cascades in the resistance of adult mice to Escherichia coli K1 brain infection. Deficiency in MyD88 (myd88(-/-)) but not in TRIF (trif(lps2)) adaptor proteins dramatically reduced the survival of animals. Depletion of CD11b(+) Ly-6G(+) Ly-6C(int) neutrophils by application of the anti-Ly-6G (1A8) monoclonal antibody (MAb) led to higher bacterial loads in cerebellum and spleen tissue and resulted in increased mortality compared to those of isotype-treated controls. Depletion of CD11b(+) Ly-6G(+) Ly-6C(int) neutrophils and CD11b(+) Ly-6G(-) Ly-6C(high) monocytes by administration of the anti-Gr-1 (RB6-8C5) MAb rendered mice even more susceptible to the infection, with higher central nervous system (CNS) and spleen bacterial burdens than anti-Ly-6G-treated animals. Depletion of ∼50% of CD11b(+) Ly-6G(-) Ly-6C(high) monocytes by injection of the anti-CCR2 (MC-21) MAb resulted in a trend toward higher mortality compared to that with isotype treatment. Production of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, KC, and MIP-2 in the CNS strongly depended on the bacterial load: increased levels of these cytokines/chemokines were found after depletion of CD11b(+) Ly-6G(+) Ly-6C(int) neutrophils alone or together with CD11b(+) Ly-6G(-) Ly-6C(high) monocytes. These findings identify Toll-like receptor (TLR)-MyD88 signaling and neutrophil and monocyte activity as critical elements in the early host defense against E. coli meningitis.
Amelioration of murine passive immune thrombocytopenia by IVIg and a therapeutic monoclonal CD44 antibody does not require the Myd88 signaling pathway. Andrew R Crow;Honghui Yu;Dongji Han;Alan H Lazarus. 2013. PLoS One. 8. PMID: 23940791

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder characterized by a low platelet count and the production of anti-platelet antibodies. The majority of ITP patients have antibodies to platelet integrin α(IIb)β₃ (GPIIbIIIa) which can direct platelet phagocytosis by macrophages. One effective treatment for patients with ITP is intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) which rapidly reverses thrombocytopenia. The exact mechanism of IVIg action in human patients is unclear, although in mouse models of passive ITP, IVIg can rapidly increase platelet counts in the absence of adaptive immunity. Another antibody therapeutic that can similarly increase platelet counts independent of adaptive immunity are CD44 antibodies. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors which play a central role in helping direct the innate immune system. Dendritic cells, which are notable for their expression of TLRs, have been directly implicated in IVIg function as an initiator cell, while CD44 can associate with TLR2 and TLR4. We therefore questioned whether IVIg, or the therapeutic CD44 antibody KM114, mediate their ameliorative effects in a manner dependent upon normal TLR function. Here, we demonstrate that the TLR4 agonist LPS does not inhibit IVIg or KM114 amelioration of antibody-induced thrombocytopenia, and that these therapeutics do not ameliorate LPS-induced thrombocytopenia. IVIg was able to significantly ameliorate murine ITP in C3H/HeJ mice which have defective TLR4. All known murine TLRs except TLR3 utilize the Myd88 adapter protein to drive TLR signaling. Employing Myd88 deficient mice, we found that both IVIg and KM114 ameliorate murine ITP in Myd88 deficient mice to the same extent as normal mice. Thus both IVIg and anti-CD44 antibody can mediate their ameliorative effects in murine passive ITP independent of the Myd88 signaling pathway. These data help shed light on the mechanism of action of IVIg and KM114 in the amelioration of murine ITP.
Cutting edge: TLR signaling licenses IRAK1 for rapid activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri;Seokwon Kang;Connor Anderson;Junji Sagara;Katherine A Fitzgerald;Emad S Alnemri. 2013. J Immunol. 191. PMID: 24043892

Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by diverse stimuli requires a priming signal from TLRs and an activation signal from purinergic receptors or pore-forming toxins. In this study, we demonstrate, through detailed analysis of NLRP3 activation in macrophages deficient in key downstream TLR signaling molecules, that MyD88 is required for an immediate early phase, whereas Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β is required for a subsequent intermediate phase of posttranslational NLRP3 activation. Both IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) 1 and IRAK4 are critical for rapid activation of NLRP3 through the MyD88 pathway, but only IRAK1 is partially required in the Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β pathway. IRAK1 and IRAK4 are also required for rapid activation of NLRP3 by Listeria monocytogenes, as deletion of IRAK1 or IRAK4 led to defective inflammasome activation. These findings define the pathways that lead to rapid NLRP3 activation and identify IRAK1 as a critical mediator of a transcription-independent,inflammasome-dependent early warning response to pathogenic infection.
Role of Toll-like receptor/MYD88 signaling in neurodegenerative diseases. Wang Xiang;Zhang-Yong Chao;Du-Yi Feng. 2015. Rev Neurosci. 26. PMID: 25870959

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important innate immune proteins, and the activation of the TLRs results in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways, leading to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines that are essential to the identification and clearance of invading pathogens. TLR signaling occurs through adaptor proteins, most commonly myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). It is now known that immune surveillance and inflammatory responses occur in neurodegenerative diseases and TLR/MYD88 signaling plays a critical role in these diseases. The included studies suggest a contribution for this signaling to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy, and related disorders. In this review, a discussion of the recent findings in this field is presented.
IMQ-induced skin inflammation in mice is dependent on IL-1R1 and MyD88 signaling but independent of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Hanitriniaina Rabeony;Mathilde Pohin;Philippe Vasseur;Isabelle Petit-Paris;Jean-François Jégou;Laure Favot;Eric Frouin;Marie-Astrid Boutet;Frédéric Blanchard;Dieudonnée Togbe;Bernhard Ryffel;François-Xavier Bernard;Jean-Claude Lecron;Franck Morel. 2015. Eur J Immunol. 45. PMID: 26147228

The pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis involves the release of numerous proinflammatory cytokines, including members of the IL-1 family. Here we report overexpression of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist mRNA, associated to expression of IL-23p19, IL-17A, and IL-22 in skin cells, upon topical application of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) in C57BL/6J mice. IMQ-induced skin inflammation was partially reduced in mice deficient for both IL-1α/IL-1β or for IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1), but not in IL-1α- or IL-1β-deficient mice, demonstrating the redundant activity of IL-1α and IL-1β for skin inflammation. NLRP3 or apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a Caspase recruitment domain-deficient mice had no significant reduction of skin inflammation in response to IMQ treatment, mainly due to the redundancy of IL-1α. However, IMQ-induced skin inflammation was abolished in the absence of MyD88, the adaptor protein shared by IL-1R and TLR signaling pathways. These results are consistent with the TLR7 dependence of IMQ-induced skin inflammation. Thus, IL-1R1 contributes to the IMQ-induced skin inflammation, and disruption of MyD88 signaling completely abrogates this response.
Therapeutic progenitor cell application for tissue regeneration: Analyzing the impact of toll-like receptor signaling on c-kit+ cell migration following ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Peter Donndorf;Saifullah Abubaker;Brigitte Vollmar;Christian Rimmbach;Gustav Steinhoff;Alexander Kaminski. 2017. Microvasc Res. 112. PMID: 28363496

OBJECTIVES: Toll-like-receptor (TLR) mediated immune response has been shown to regulate myocardial damage following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR). It has not been described conclusively so far whether migration of therapeutically applied progenitor cells following an IR event depends on TLR-signaling. METHODS: In vivo migratory capacity murine c-kit+ cells following IR injury was quantified by intravital fluorescence microscopy, utilizing the mouse cremaster muscle model and analyzing early (rolling) and late (adhesion) c-kit+ cell interaction with the local endothelium. The role of TLR-2 and TLR-4, as well as MyD88 and TRIF was analyzed by applying specific knock-out models. RESULTS: A sequence of 15min ischemia followed by 15min of reperfusion induced firm endothelial c-kit+ cell adhesion (5.6±1.3cells/mm2 in Control vs. 30.2±10.1cells/mm2 in IR, p<0.05). Knock-out of TLR-2 and TLR-4 diminished both IR induced early c-kit+ cell-endothelial cell interactions (67.6±2.3% c-kit+ cell rolling in IR vs. 46.3±4.8% c-kit+ cell rolling in IR-TLR-2-ko vs. 45.3±4.8% c-kit+ cell rolling in IR-TLR-4-ko, p<0.05) as well as firm endothelial c-kit+ cell adhesion (30.2±10.1cells/mm2 in IR vs. 16.3±3.9cells/mm2 in IR-TLR-2-ko vs. 14.5±4.4cells/mm2 in IR-TLR-4-ko, p<0.05). Adaptor protein knock-out resulted in a significantly decreased firm endothelial c-kit+ cell adhesion only in MyD88 knock-out but not in TRIF knock-out (9.2±2.2cells/mm2 in IR-MyD88-ko vs. 30.1±9.9cells/mm2 in IR-WT, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Artificially applied c-kit+ cells interact with the target organ endothelium following IR injury. This interaction seems to depend on TLR-MyD88 signaling. Therapeutic blockade of TLR signaling for anti-inflammatory purposes might interfere with regenerative cell-based therapy protocols.
Toll-like receptor mediated inflammation requires FASN-dependent MYD88 palmitoylation. Young-Chan Kim;Sang Eun Lee;Somi K Kim;Hyun-Duk Jang;Injoo Hwang;Sooryeonhwa Jin;Eun-Byeol Hong;Kyoung-Soon Jang;Hyo-Soo Kim. 2019. Nat Chem Biol. 15. PMID: 31427815

Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MYD88) signaling aggravates sepsis by impairing neutrophil migration to infection sites. However, the role of intracellular fatty acids in TLR/MYD88 signaling is unclear. Here, inhibition of fatty acid synthase by C75 improved neutrophil chemotaxis and increased the survival of mice with sepsis in cecal ligation puncture and lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock models. C75 specifically blocked TLR/MYD88 signaling in neutrophils. Treatment with GSK2194069 that targets a different domain of fatty acid synthase, did not block TLR signaling or MYD88 palmitoylation. De novo fatty acid synthesis and CD36-mediated exogenous fatty acid incorporation contributed to MYD88 palmitoylation. The binding of IRAK4 to the MYD88 intermediate domain and downstream signal activation required MYD88 palmitoylation at cysteine 113. MYD88 was palmitoylated by ZDHHC6, and ZDHHC6 knockdown decreased MYD88 palmitoylation and TLR/MYD88 activation upon lipopolysaccharide stimulus. Thus, intracellular saturated fatty acid-dependent palmitoylation of MYD88 by ZDHHC6 is a therapeutic target of sepsis.
Pivotal Advance: Inhibition of MyD88 dimerization and recruitment of IRAK1 and IRAK4 by a novel peptidomimetic compound. Maria Loiarro;Federica Capolunghi;Nicola Fantò;Grazia Gallo;Silvia Campo;Brunilde Arseni;Rita Carsetti;Paolo Carminati;Rita De Santis;Vito Ruggiero;Claudio Sette. 2007. J Leukoc Biol. 82. PMID: 17548806

MyD88 is an adaptor protein, which plays an essential role in the intracellular signaling elicited by IL-1R and several TLRs. Central to its function is the ability of its Toll/IL-1R translation initiation region (TIR) domain to heterodimerize with the receptor and to homodimerize with another MyD88 molecule to favor the recruitment of downstream signaling molecules such as the serine/threonine kinases IL-1R-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and IRAK4. Herein, we have synthesized and tested the activity of a synthetic peptido-mimetic compound (ST2825) modeled after the structure of a heptapeptide in the BB-loop of the MyD88-TIR domain, which interferes with MyD88 signaling. ST2825 inhibited MyD88 dimerization in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. This effect was specific for homodimerization of the TIR domains and did not affect homodimerization of the death domains. Moreover, ST2825 interfered with recruitment of IRAK1 and IRAK4 by MyD88, causing inhibition of IL-1beta-mediated activation of NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. After oral administration, ST2825 dose-dependently inhibited IL-1beta-induced production of IL-6 in treated mice. Finally, we observed that ST2825 suppressed B cell proliferation and differentiation into plasma cells in response to CpG-induced activation of TLR9, a receptor that requires MyD88 for intracellular signaling. Our results indicate that ST2825 blocks IL-1R/TLR signaling by interfering with MyD88 homodimerization and suggest that it may have therapeutic potential in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.
Pivotal Advance: Toll-like receptor regulation of scavenger receptor-A-mediated phagocytosis. Eyal Amiel;Anselmo Alonso;Satoshi Uematsu;Shizuo Akira;Matthew E Poynter;Brent Berwin. 2008. J Leukoc Biol. 85. PMID: 19112093

Class-A scavenger receptors (SR-A) and TLR mediate early immune responses against pathogenic bacteria. SR-A and TLR molecules are expressed on phagocytes and interact with common ligands from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; however, the contribution of TLR activity to SR-A-mediated phagocytosis has not been assessed directly. Herein, we provide genetic and functional evidence that ligand- and TLR-specific stimuli synergize with SR-A to mediate bacterial phagocytosis. Although complete loss of SR-A (SR-A(-/-)) is known to impair bacterial clearance, here we identify the first deficiency attributable to SR-A heterozygosity: SR-A(+/-)TLR4(+/-) cells and mice are impaired significantly in the clearance of Gram-negative Escherichia coli. This phenotype is specific to the TLR signaling event, as SR-A(+/-)TLR4(+/-) cells are not deficient for the clearance of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which contain cell-surface TLR2 ligands but lack TLR4 ligands. We demonstrate that this is a global, phagocytic mechanism, regulated independently by multiple TLRs, as analogous to the SR-A(+/-)TLR4(+/-) deficit, SR-A(+/-)TLR2(+/-) cells are impaired for S. aureus uptake. In support of this, we show that SR-A(+/-)MyD88(+/-) cells recapitulate the phagocytosis defect observed in SR-A(+/-)TLR4(+/-) cells. These data identify for the first time that TLR-driven innate immune responses, via a MyD88 signaling mechanism, regulate SR-A-dependent phagocytosis of bacteria. These findings provide novel insights into how innate immune cells control SR-A-mediated trafficking and are the first demonstration that subtle changes in the expression of SR-A and TLRs can substantially affect host bacterial clearance.
MyD88 signaling in the CNS is required for development of fatty acid-induced leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity. André Kleinridders;Dominik Schenten;A Christine Könner;Bengt F Belgardt;Jan Mauer;Tomoo Okamura;F Thomas Wunderlich;Ruslan Medzhitov;Jens C Brüning. 2009. Cell Metab. 10. PMID: 19808018

Obesity-associated activation of inflammatory pathways represents a key step in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral organs, partially via activation of TLR4 signaling by fatty acids. Here, we demonstrate that palmitate acting in the central nervous system (CNS) inhibits leptin-induced anorexia and Stat3 activation. To determine the functional significance of TLR signaling in the CNS in the development of leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity in vivo, we have characterized mice deficient for the TLR adaptor molecule MyD88 in the CNS (MyD88(DeltaCNS)). Compared to control mice, MyD88(DeltaCNS) mice are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain, from the development of HFD-induced leptin resistance, and from the induction of leptin resistance by acute central application of palmitate. Moreover, CNS-restricted MyD88 deletion protects from HFD- and icv palmitate-induced impairment of peripheral glucose metabolism. Thus, we define neuronal MyD88-dependent signaling as a key regulator of diet-induced leptin and insulin resistance in vivo.
Toll-like receptor 4 engagement contributes to expression of NKG2D ligands by renal tubular epithelial cells. Gang Eric Chen;Huiling Wu;Jin Ma;Steven J Chadban;Alexandra Sharland. 2011. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 26. PMID: 21555390

BACKGROUND: Engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 on intrinsic kidney cells is critical for the full development of renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Effects of TLR signalling in renal parenchymal cells include the production of cytokines, chemokines and other soluble mediators which contribute to local inflammation and leucocyte accumulation. Whether engagement of TLR4 on kidney cells results in additional pro-inflammatory modifications of the renal microenvironment remains to be determined. METHODS: Renal IRI was induced by clamping of the renal pedicles, and expression of NKG2D ligands in mice deficient in TLR4 or its adaptor molecule MyD88, or else pretreated with blocking antibodies against the endogenous TLR4 ligand HMGB1, was compared to that in wild-type mice. Cultures of isolated renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) from WT, TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice were stimulated with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or mineral oil occlusion was used to simulate IRI in vitro, prior to determination of NKG2D ligand expression. Chimeric mice lacking TLR4 in either the bone marrow derived or the parenchymal compartment were also subjected to IRI. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate a substantial increase in the expression of the NKG2D ligands retinoic acid early inducible-1 (RAE-1), murine ULBP-like transcript 1 (MULT-1) and histocompatibility-60 (H-60) in mouse kidneys during renal IRI. Expression of NKG2D ligands was attenuated in mice deficient in either TLR4 or the adaptor molecule MyD88. Antibody blockade of HMGB1 reduced NKG2D ligand expression by a comparable extent to TLR4 deficiency and did not result in further reduction of NKG2D ligand expression in TLR4(-/-) mice. Isolated TECs from normal mice but not those with defects in the TLR4-MyD88 signalling pathway expressed RAE-1 and MULT-1 upon exposure to LPS and after being subjected to in vitro conditions resembling ischaemia-reperfusion. TLR4 competence in the parenchymal but not the bone marrow-derived compartment was required for RAE-1 up-regulation in mouse kidneys after ischaemia, while TLR4 signalling in both compartments contributed to the intrarenal expression of MULT-1 during IRI. CONCLUSION: Expression of the NKG2D ligands RAE-1 and MULT-1 on kidney cells in response to TLR4 engagement by HMGB1 represents another mechanism by which TLR4 signalling may participate in the pathogenesis of renal IRI.
LPS preconditioning redirects TLR signaling following stroke: TRIF-IRF3 plays a seminal role in mediating tolerance to ischemic injury. Keri B Vartanian;Susan L Stevens;Brenda J Marsh;Rebecca Williams-Karnesky;Nikola S Lessov;Mary P Stenzel-Poore. 2011. J Neuroinflammation. 8. PMID: 21999375

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is activated in response to cerebral ischemia leading to substantial brain damage. In contrast, mild activation of TLR4 by preconditioning with low dose exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prior to cerebral ischemia dramatically improves outcome by reprogramming the signaling response to injury. This suggests that TLR4 signaling can be altered to induce an endogenously neuroprotective phenotype. However, the TLR4 signaling events involved in this neuroprotective response are poorly understood. Here we define several molecular mediators of the primary signaling cascades induced by LPS preconditioning that give rise to the reprogrammed response to cerebral ischemia and confer the neuroprotective phenotype. METHODS: C57BL6 mice were preconditioned with low dose LPS prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cortical tissue and blood were collected following MCAO. Microarray and qtPCR were performed to analyze gene expression associated with TLR4 signaling. EMSA and DNA binding ELISA were used to evaluate NFκB and IRF3 activity. Protein expression was determined using Western blot or ELISA. MyD88-/- and TRIF-/- mice were utilized to evaluate signaling in LPS preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. RESULTS: Gene expression analyses revealed that LPS preconditioning resulted in a marked upregulation of anti-inflammatory/type I IFN-associated genes following ischemia while pro-inflammatory genes induced following ischemia were present but not differentially modulated by LPS. Interestingly, although expression of pro-inflammatory genes was observed, there was decreased activity of NFκB p65 and increased presence of NFκB inhibitors, including Ship1, Tollip, and p105, in LPS-preconditioned mice following stroke. In contrast, IRF3 activity was enhanced in LPS-preconditioned mice following stroke. TRIF and MyD88 deficient mice revealed that neuroprotection induced by LPS depends on TLR4 signaling via TRIF, which activates IRF3, but does not depend on MyD88 signaling. CONCLUSION: Our results characterize several critical mediators of the TLR4 signaling events associated with neuroprotection. LPS preconditioning redirects TLR4 signaling in response to stroke through suppression of NFκB activity, enhanced IRF3 activity, and increased anti-inflammatory/type I IFN gene expression. Interestingly, this protective phenotype does not require the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, our results highlight a critical role for TRIF-IRF3 signaling as the governing mechanism in the neuroprotective response to stroke.
MyD88 signaling promotes both mucosal homeostatic and fibrotic responses during Salmonella-induced colitis. Lisa E Månsson;Marinieve Montero;Maryam Zarepour;Kirk S Bergstrom;Caixia Ma;Tina Huang;Carllin Man;Guntram A Grassl;Bruce A Vallance. 2012. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 303. PMID: 22679002

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a clinically important gram-negative, enteric bacterial pathogen that activates several Toll-like receptors (TLRs). While TLR signaling through the adaptor protein MyD88 has been shown to promote inflammation and host defense against the systemic spread of S. Typhimurium, curiously, its role in the host response against S. Typhimurium within the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is less clear. We therefore used the recently described Salmonella-induced enterocolitis and fibrosis model: wild-type (WT) and MyD88-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) mice pretreated with streptomycin and then orally infected with the ΔaroA vaccine strain of S. Typhimurium. Tissues were analyzed for bacterial colonization, inflammation, and epithelial damage, while fibrosis was assessed by collagen quantification and Masson's trichrome staining. WT and MyD88(-/-) mice carried similar intestinal pathogen burdens to postinfection day 21. Infection of WT mice led to acute mucosal and submucosal inflammation and edema, as well as significant intestinal epithelial damage and proliferation, leading to widespread goblet cell depletion. Impressive collagen deposition in the WT intestine was also evident in the submucosa at postinfection days 7 and 21, with fibrotic regions rich in fibroblasts and collagen. While infected MyD88(-/-) mice showed levels of submucosal inflammation and edema similar to WT mice, they were impaired in the development of mucosal inflammation, along with infection-induced epithelial damage, proliferation, and goblet cell depletion. MyD88(-/-) mouse tissues also had fewer submucosal fibroblasts and 60% less collagen. We noted that cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 expression was MyD88-dependent, with numerous Cox-2-positive cells identified in fibrotic regions of WT mice at postinfection day 7, but not in MyD88(-/-) mice. Treatment of WT mice with the Cox-2 inhibitor rofecoxib (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced fibroblast numbers and collagen levels without altering colitis severity. In conclusion, MyD88 and Cox-2 signaling play roles in intestinal fibrosis during Salmonella-induced enterocolitis.
Endotoxin Exposure during Sensitization to Blomia tropicalis Allergens Shifts TH2 Immunity Towards a TH17-Mediated Airway Neutrophilic Inflammation: Role of TLR4 and TLR2. Renato Barboza;Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara;Eliane Gomes;Anderson Sá-Nunes;Esther Florsheim;Luciana Mirotti;Alexis Labrada;Neuza Maria Alcântara-Neves;Momtchilo Russo. 2013. PLoS One. 8. PMID: 23805294

Experimental evidence and epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (eLPS) or other TLR agonists prevent asthma. We have previously shown in the OVA-model of asthma that eLPS administration during alum-based allergen sensitization blocked the development of lung TH2 immune responses via MyD88 pathway and IL-12/IFN-γ axis. In the present work we determined the effect of eLPS exposure during sensitization to a natural airborne allergen extract derived from the house dust mite Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Mice were subcutaneously sensitized with Bt allergens co-adsorbed onto alum with or without eLPS and challenged twice intranasally with Bt. Cellular and molecular parameters of allergic lung inflammation were evaluated 24 h after the last Bt challenge. Exposure to eLPS but not to ultrapure LPS (upLPS) preparation during sensitization to Bt allergens decreased the influx of eosinophils and increased the influx of neutrophils to the airways. Inhibition of airway eosinophilia was not observed in IFN-γdeficient mice while airway neutrophilia was not observed in IL-17RA-deficient mice as well in mice lacking MyD88, CD14, TLR4 and, surprisingly, TLR2 molecules. Notably, exposure to a synthetic TLR2 agonist (PamCSK4) also induced airway neutrophilia that was dependent on TLR2 and TLR4 molecules. In the OVA model, exposure to eLPS or PamCSK4 suppressed OVA-induced airway inflammation. Our results suggest that B. tropicalis allergens engage TLR4 that potentiates TLR2 signaling. This dual TLR activation during sensitization results in airway neutrophilic inflammation associated with increased frequency of lung TH17 cells. Our work highlight the complex interplay between bacterial products, house dust mite allergens and TLR signaling in the induction of different phenotypes of airway inflammation.
TLR-2/TLR-4 TREM-1 signaling pathway is dispensable in inflammatory myeloid cells during sterile kidney injury. Gabriela Campanholle;Kristen Mittelsteadt;Shunsaku Nakagawa;Akio Kobayashi;Shuei-Liong Lin;Sina A Gharib;Jay W Heinecke;Jessica A Hamerman;William A Altemeier;Jeremy S Duffield. 2013. PLoS One. 8. PMID: 23844229

Inflammatory macrophages are abundant in kidney disease, stimulating repair, or driving chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Damage associated molecules (DAMPs), released from injured cells engage pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on macrophages, contributing to activation. Understanding mechanisms of macrophage activation during kidney injury may lead to strategies to alleviate chronic disease. We identified Triggering-Receptor-in-Myeloid-cells (TREM)-1, a regulator of TLR signaling, as highly upregulated in kidney inflammatory macrophages and tested the roles of these receptors in macrophage activation and kidney disease. Kidney DAMPs activated macrophages in vitro, independently of TREM-1, but partially dependent on TLR-2/-4, MyD88. In two models of progressive interstitial kidney disease, TREM-1 blockade had no impact on disease or macrophage activation in vivo, but TLR-2/-4, or MyD88 deficiency was anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic. When MyD88 was mutated only in the myeloid lineage, however, there was no bearing on macrophage activation or disease progression. Instead, TLR-2/-4 or MyD88 deficiency reduced activation of mesenchyme lineage cells resulting in reduced inflammation and fibrosis, indicating that these pathways play dominant roles in activation of myofibroblasts but not macrophages. To conclude, TREM-1, TLR2/4 and MyD88 signaling pathways are redundant in myeloid cell activation in kidney injury, but the latter appear to regulate activation of mesenchymal cells.
TLR4 signaling shapes B cell dynamics via MyD88-dependent pathways and Rac GTPases. Laura Barrio;Julia Saez de Guinoa;Yolanda R Carrasco. 2013. J Immunol. 191. PMID: 23997213

B cells use a plethora of TLR to recognize pathogen-derived ligands. These innate signals have an important function in the B cell adaptive immune response and modify their trafficking and tissue location. The direct role of TLR signaling on B cell dynamics nonetheless remains almost entirely unknown. In this study, we used a state-of-the-art two-dimensional model combined with real-time microscopy to study the effect of TLR4 stimulation on mouse B cell motility in response to chemokines. We show that a minimum stimulation period is necessary for TLR4 modification of B cell behavior. TLR4 stimulation increased B cell polarization, migration, and directionality; these increases were dependent on the MyD88 signaling pathway and did not require ERK or p38 MAPK activity downstream of TLR4. In addition, TLR4 stimulation enhanced Rac GTPase activity and promoted sustained Rac activation in response to chemokines. These results increase our understanding of the regulation of B cell dynamics by innate signals and the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Mutational analysis identifies residues crucial for homodimerization of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and for its function in immune cells. Maria Loiarro;Elisabetta Volpe;Vito Ruggiero;Grazia Gallo;Roberto Furlan;Chiara Maiorino;Luca Battistini;Claudio Sette. 2013. J Biol Chem. 288. PMID: 24019529

Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that transduces intracellular signaling pathways evoked by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). MyD88 is composed of an N-terminal death domain (DD) and a C-terminal Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain, separated by a short region. Upon ligand binding, TLR/IL-1Rs hetero- or homodimerize and recruit MyD88 through their respective TIR domains. Then, MyD88 oligomerizes via its DD and TIR domain and interacts with the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) to form the Myddosome complex. We performed site-directed mutagenesis of conserved residues that are located in exposed regions of the MyD88-TIR domain and analyzed the effect of the mutations on MyD88 signaling. Our studies revealed that mutation of Glu(183), Ser(244), and Arg(288) impaired homodimerization of the MyD88-TIR domain, recruitment of IRAKs, and activation of NF-κB. Moreover, overexpression of two green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged MyD88 mini-proteins (GFP-MyD88151-189 and GFP-MyD88168-189), comprising the Glu(183) residue, recapitulated these effects. Importantly, expression of these dominant negative MyD88 mini-proteins competed with the function of endogenous MyD88 and interfered with TLR2/4-mediated responses in a human monocytic cell line (THP-1) and in human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thus, our studies identify novel residues of the TIR domain that are crucially involved in MyD88 homodimerization and TLR signaling in immune cells.
Toll-like receptor signaling adapter proteins govern spread of neuropathic pain and recovery following nerve injury in male mice. Jennifer A Stokes;Jonathan Cheung;Kelly Eddinger;Maripat Corr;Tony L Yaksh. 2013. J Neuroinflammation. 10. PMID: 24321498

BACKGROUND: Spinal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and signaling intermediaries have been implicated in persistent pain states. We examined the roles of two major TLR signaling pathways and selected TLRs in a mononeuropathic allodynia. METHODS: L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was performed in wild type (WT, C57BL/6) male and female mice and in male Tlr2-/-Tlr3-/-, Tlr4-/-, Tlr5-/-, Myd88-/-, Triflps2, Myd88/Triflps2, Tnf-/-, and Ifnar1-/- mice. We also examined L5 ligation in Tlr4-/- female mice. We examined tactile allodynia using von Frey hairs. Iba-1 (microglia) and GFAP (astrocytes) were assessed in spinal cords by immunostaining. Tactile thresholds were analyzed by 1- and 2-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test was used. RESULTS: In WT male and female mice, SNL lesions resulted in a persistent and robust ipsilateral, tactile allodynia. In males with TLR2, 3, 4, or 5 deficiencies, tactile allodynia was significantly, but incompletely, reversed (approximately 50%) as compared to WT. This effect was not seen in female Tlr4-/- mice. Increases in ipsilateral lumbar Iba-1 and GFAP were seen in mutant and WT mice. Mice deficient in MyD88, or MyD88 and TRIF, showed an approximately 50% reduction in withdrawal thresholds and reduced ipsilateral Iba-1. In contrast, TRIF and interferon receptor null mice developed a profound ipsilateral and contralateral tactile allodynia. In lumbar sections of the spinal cords, we observed a greater increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the TRIF-signaling deficient mice as compared to WT, but no significant increase in GFAP. Removing MyD88 abrogated the contralateral allodynia in the TRIF signaling-deficient mice. Conversely, IFNβ, released downstream to TRIF signaling, administered intrathecally, temporarily reversed the tactile allodynia. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest a critical role for the MyD88 pathway in initiating neuropathic pain, but a distinct role for the TRIF pathway and interferon in regulating neuropathic pain phenotypes in male mice.
MicroRNA-149 negatively regulates TLR-triggered inflammatory response in macrophages by targeting MyD88. Guangxian Xu;Zhaobo Zhang;Yiwen Xing;Jun Wei;Zhaohui Ge;Xiaoming Liu;Ying Zhang;Xuelan Huang. 2014. J Cell Biochem. 115. PMID: 24375488

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important regulators of TLR signaling pathway at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, the potential role of miR-149 was explored in murine alveolar macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Our results demonstrated a dynamic change of the expressions of miR-149 expression and MyD88 in macrophage RAW264.7 upon Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerlin (BCG) infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The presence of BCG or LPS dynamically reduced the miR-149 expression, along with a substantially striking increase of MyD88 expression in these cells. More importantly, overexpression of miR-149 in RAW264.7 cells was associated with a significant decrease of MyD88 protein expression, as well as a reduced production of inflammatory mediator NF-κB 1, TNF-α and IL-6 in response to BCG infection or LPS stimulation. Further studies using immunoblotting assay against anti-MyD88 antibody and microRNA targeting luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-149 was able to directly target the 3'-UTR of MyD88 mRNA and post-transcriptionally regulated MyD88 protein expression. These data suggested that miR-149 might be a key player of immune modulator for TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway in macrophages, which may through a mechanism of negatively regulating MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptors signaling pathway.
TRIF-dependent innate immune activation is critical for survival to neonatal gram-negative sepsis. Alex G Cuenca;Dallas N Joiner;Lori F Gentile;Angela L Cuenca;James L Wynn;Kindra M Kelly-Scumpia;Philip O Scumpia;Kevin E Behrns;Philip A Efron;Dina Nacionales;Chao Lui;Shannon M Wallet;Westley H Reeves;Clayton E Mathews;Lyle L Moldawer. 2014. J Immunol. 194. PMID: 25548220

Current evidence suggests that neonatal immunity is functionally distinct from adults. Although TLR signaling through the adaptor protein, MyD88, has been shown to be critical for survival to sepsis in adults, little is known about the role of MyD88 or TRIF in neonatal sepsis. We demonstrate that TRIF(-/-) but not MyD88(-/-) neonates are highly susceptible to Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia. This was associated with decreased innate immune recruitment and function. Importantly, we found that the reverse was true in adults that MyD88(-/-) but not TRIF(-/-) or wild-type adults are susceptible to E. coli peritonitis and bacteremia. In addition, we demonstrate that TRIF but not MyD88 signaling is critical for the TLR4 protective adjuvant effect we have previously demonstrated. These data suggest a differential requirement for the survival of neonates versus adults to Gram-negative infection, and that modulation of TRIF in neonates can be used to augment survival to neonatal sepsis.
Cutting Edge: Synchronization of IRF1, JunB, and C/EBPβ Activities during TLR3-TLR7 Cross-Talk Orchestrates Timely Cytokine Synergy in the Proinflammatory Response. Qian Liu;Yong Zhu;Wai Khang Yong;Newman Siu Kwan Sze;Nguan Soon Tan;Jeak Ling Ding. 2015. J Immunol. 195. PMID: 26109639

Multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern-induced TLR pathway cross-talk provokes proinflammatory cytokine synergy in macrophages, which is important for pathogen resistance and immune homeostasis. However, the detailed mechanisms are unclear. In this article, we demonstrate viral RNA analog-induced transcription synergy of Il6 and Il12b via IFN regulatory factor (IRF)1 (TLR3-TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β [TRIF] responsive), C/EBPβ (TLR7-MyD88 responsive), and JunB (all responsive). Coactivation of the TLR3 and TLR7 pathways synchronizes the interaction of IRF1, JunB, and C/EBPβ with the Il6 and Il12b promoters, facilitating maximal gene expression. MyD88 pathway activation suppresses TRIF-induced IRF1 in a delayed manner, controlling the magnitude and timing of cytokine expression. Our findings provide novel mechanisms of cooperation of different TLR pathways to achieve optimal immune responses, with the potential for immunomodulatory strategies.