Metabolic responses to intense exercise in lean and obese subjects. J F Yale;L A Leiter;E B Marliss. 1989. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 68. PMID: 2645309

Sustained elevations of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations follow intense (80% maximum oxygen uptake) exercise performed in the postabsorptive state. To provide insights into possible mechanisms and influence of obesity, 8 lean and 12 obese subjects [106 +/- 11% (SD) and 193 +/- 31% of reference table weight, respectively] eating previously isocaloric diets were exercised to exhaustion (7 +/- 3 min) on a cycle ergometer, then followed for 60 min of recovery. The obese subjects at rest had slightly increased plasma glucose and insulin and elevated blood glycerol concentrations. Both lean and obese subjects had little or no changes in plasma glucose or insulin during exercise, but the increases during the recovery period were greater and/or sustained longer in the obese. Such results raise the possibility of transient hepatic insulin resistance after exercise and are possibly relevant to restoration of depleted muscle glycogen. Both groups had a marked fall in plasma FFA during exercise; the reduction was sustained in the lean but not in the obese subjects. Blood glycerol increased during the recovery period to higher values in the obese than in the lean subjects. Plasma norepinephrine increased about 4-fold in both groups, returning promptly to preexercise values. In contrast, the exercise-induced increment in plasma epinephrine [values at exhaustion, 933 +/- 548 vs. 1970 +/- 787 pmol/L; P less than 0.005] was markedly attenuated in the obese subjects. Thus, the obese subjects had exercise-induced changes in glucose and inulin metabolism consistent with greater postexercise insulin resistance, despite an impaired plasma epinephrine response to intense exercise.
RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne). Won Yong Jung;Sang Sook Lee;Chul Wook Kim;Hyun-Soon Kim;Sung Ran Min;Jae Sun Moon;Suk-Yoon Kwon;Jae-Heung Jeon;Hye Sun Cho. 2014. PLoS One. 9. PMID: 25375764

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke.